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AS and A Level: Buddhism
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In our argument we will also look at how both of the religions have used the Vedic traditions as a basic source to build a religion of their own and to have beliefs which are very different and also very similar from the Vedic traditions. To begin we first define Moksha and Veda. Moksa is the liberation from the "stream of current life." Moksa is a positive state of completeness; it is the fullness of being free from the endless cycle of birth, death and rebirth.
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Buddhism - : Training the mind properly is more important than acting correctly Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
'Right effort' is to train yourself to avoid doing bad things and working hard to do good. This is important because it won't make others suffer because you won't do bad things. Also, others will benefit from the good things you do, which will prevent people from suffering. Some people believe that if you follow this rule you will avoid killing, stealing, and being dishonest and unfaithful, as well as avoid drinking or taking drugs. This is the fourth rule (right action), which is automatically fulfilled because of following the sixth rule, you have already trained yourself not to commit bad actions.
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This idea is recent, since we all know that science and religion have been in "war" during a long time. In the following points I am going to explain briefly two examples of conflict between science and religion: * Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) was an Italian astronomer. He studied the planets and stars. One of his most important discoveries was that he found out that our earth orbited the sun. This was good news until people swapped the idea that our earth was the center of the universe, something that they were taught until then.
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Bible experts believe that these scrolls belonged to monks (70CE), who stored their writings in airtight jars to keep them safe, so the Romans wouldn't find them. The Holy Land Palestine is a small country. It is a land of many contrasts. There are snow-capped mountains in the north, and a desert area in the south. In between, there are low hills and fertile valleys. The weather in Palestine is usually hot during the day, but it can get cold at night.
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The third form is an eternal truth or principal that governs the universe (see Valea, 2010). The reason that it is possible for all world religions to make claims about an ultimate reality is to do with the broadness of the term. For a religion to exist, it must have a set of truths or an ultimate reality to be defined as a religion. A religion is defined as a set of beliefs concerning the cause, purpose, and nature of the universe, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs (dictionary.com, 2010).
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Buddha was a religious innovator Assess this view. I will be discussing whether Buddha was indeed a religious innovator, the ideas he has taken from other religions and entirely original, new concepts he created.
Another reason he disagreed with this would be that hurting the animal would be against the eightfold path since harming the animal unnecessarily would not be a 'right action' it would also be an example of not showing the 'right mindfulness' since if we were aware of the animal's pain and suffering then we wouldn't be sacrificing the animal. Many Buddhists choose to be vegetarian as hurting animals creates bad karma due to the above. Buddha's main difference in opinion to ideas of the time would be that the Buddhist Dharma (or teaching)
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"Artefacts show it's Religion to be related to the forces of nature... the worship of a mother Goddess, sacred trees and fertility symbols." (Buddhism Dominique Side) The valley was believed to have been a strong central government and to have two main political centres, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The Indus Valley civilisation began to move out, many people today still believe this was because of a natural migration. After the civilisation of the Indus Valley had left, Aryans then began to set up home on their land.
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Today is a result of yesterday, tomorrow is a result of today.(TM) To what extent is this statement an apt representation of Buddhist ethics?
The difference though, is that in Buddhism only a very advanced bodhisattva is permitted to break with the traditional values, while situation ethics can be applied by anyone with a loving heart: This can thus be understood as in Buddhism, a Bodhisattva can act unethically and leave no imprint on the future, yet an unenlightened Buddhists actions will have a negative impact. Many religions emphasise the importance of the notion of good and bad actions, however in Buddhism, pre-determining actions to be good or bad would be a fruitless exercise - Buddhists believe that reality of Dharma is beyond the concepts of good and bad; it contains both good and bad unseparated in a pre-conceptual state.
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When your body reaches the end of its natural cycle you die in a physical sense, from a Theravadin perspective if you have reached enlightenment, 'nirvana' during that lifetime then you are released from Samsara. Nirvana is not a place as in Christian thinking of heaven; if attained whilst living it is more a state of mind, it means literally to be 'extinguished' and is largely indescribable in modern parlance. Those who have attained nirvana fully understand the way things really are (yartabutudarshana)
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But does the Sutra satisfactorily sum up all Buddhist concepts? Many Buddhist beliefs are found within this sutra. In the second verse the sutra discusses the Skandha of form reinforcing the idea that we are only made of aggregates, this is confirmed in the lines "Form is no other than emptiness, emptiness no other than form" which is then repeated. This sums up the teaching that everything is ultimately empty and also brings in the Buddhist teaching of dependant origination.
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Accounts of the life of the Buddha are just fiction Historically we know very little about the Buddha. Even to this very day, debates still occur as to the dates of his life and death,
There are many many accounts from many parts of the world; I would have thought that there would have been a lot more discrepancies between the differing versions, considering how far apart they may have originated from. Like all accounts of history, we depend on information being passed down, mainly through written evidence and tales of myth and legend. The problem with this is that legends are altered through time, key aspects and facts are changed slightly or sometimes significantly altered (Chinese whisper syndrome).
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Teachings Now the Buddha wanted to tell other people how to become wise, good and do service for others. He advised his followers to follow the Middle Way, avoiding the two extremes of self-indulgence and self-torture. H
King Shuddhodana was afraid that these things would cause him to become disillusioned with his life at home and cause him to take a spiritual path in life. Only beauty and health surrounded Siddhartha.2 Because Siddhartha was a prince, he was taught the skills of archery, horsemanship, swordplay and martial arts. He was given the staff of beautiful young women to care for him and to look after him. When he was sixteen, he married a princess named Yasodhara. She chose Siddhartha after a number of competitions between princes, which included things such as sports and the singing of love-songs.
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Guatama Siddhartha was born a prince, He then married a princess when he was sixteen, Together they had a son named Rahula, Life was good until he ended his normal routine.
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However the ignorant authority described in the letters is opposing to this new movement. The King colluded with the Pope and Gaelic church over ways to retain control and openly practice the way of life that the new ideology condemned. Another issue arising with the Enlightenment was that it was difficult to maintain. This is illustrated in the story of the Troglodytes. Even these beings who existed in a Utopia of perfect reason and morality ended up corrupted by the burden of their own virtue.
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3 During the cultural revolution in China from 1966 to 1976, much of the remaining Taoist heritage was destroyed. Some religious tolerance has been restored under Deng Xiao-ping from 1982 to the present time. Where did Tao come from? Tao is the source of all nature. There are two forces that interact and cause change (creation) in nature. These forces are the Yin and the Yang. Yin, which is the Mandarin word for moon, represents the female, darkness, wetness, coolness, etc. Yang, which is the Mandarin word for sun, represents the male, lightness, dryness, heat, etc. The tension between Yin and Yang causes endless change through production, reproduction and the transformation of energy.
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Channa took the Horse Kandaka and the clothes to the castle. Half way through the journey the Horse Kandaka missed his master Siddhartha and died. So Channa continued the journey all by his own to the Castle. When the Sakya Tribe knew about Siddhartha they all cried out in tears. After leaving Channa, Siddhartha stayed in the mango grove called Anuppiya near the Anoma river for seven days and then he went to Rajagaha (a town). When he went into the town for food, the citizens looked admiringly at the splendid and graceful appearance of Siddhartha.
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Outline the inward journey and the outward journey experienced by Buddha, Nicky Cruz and Lord Fenner Brockway - Explain what spirituality means to you after studying the 3 case studies.
The one time that he ventured out of the grounds he saw death, old age and illness he was confused and puzzled. Having been brought up in the lap of luxury he had never experienced these things before. He asked himself, 'Why are there these things? What causes this?' To help answer his questions he tried many different things. He first tried the Ascetic lifestyle, which was a very simple life, but after seven years of no luck he tried another method.
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In what ways and to what extent did the European Enlightenment challenge established sources of authority?
Like the enlightenment the scientific revolution is linked mainly with the likes of Galileo, Francis Bacon, and Isaac Newton. Although these men were heavily involved, the first ideas came much earlier. The work of Nicolaus Copernicus at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and before even him the work of Leonardo da Vinci in the middle of the fifteenth did in fact have a massive impact. It is also possible the work of others even further back who have not been recorded in history also had an effect. (http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/ENLIGHT.HTM) In 1543 a treatise by a Polish Theologian, Physician and Mathematician called Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
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There is also the story of the young prince, who ' slits his own throat in order for a starving tigress with seven hungry cubs, might live by eating his own flesh'1. In terms of religious development, this is clearly showing the Bodhisattva Concept as it is displaying extreme compassion, or Karuna. A clear favourite, is of the loving, and righteous monkey king, and how he, by bridging himself, saved his fellow monkeys, but died while being bridged. This shows the Bodhisattva Concept again as he died to save his fellow monkeys and therefore delayed his enlightenment to help others.
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64 during the Han Dynasty. Unfortunately, the religion was not very popular among the Chinese community (Buddhism In China). The fact that Buddhism was hard to understand and that it was foreign, led to the teachings' unpopularity. After the fall of the Han Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty brought on more hope to the religion. There were three Chinese Buddhists who started to establish different types of Buddhism. A man named Hui Yuan started the pure Land Buddhists; he focused on the devotion to Buddha. He thought that if the people would be devout Buddhists, then they would be re-born into the Western Paradise or Pure Land.
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He expanded his empire through many battles; his last was the conquest of Kalinga which created much unnecessary carnage. When Ashoka saw the devastation he had caused it led him to convert to Buddhist ways, although evidence suggests that he had become a Buddhist two years earlier. Ashoka not only became a 'Follower of the Dharma' in practice, but also led his kingdom according to Buddhist principles and so made great contributions towards its early development. Ashoka had edicts inscribed on stone pillars and placed throughout his kingdom. These meant that the lay people, who up until then had had not much to do with the Buddhist practices, could now understand the teachings of the Buddha which were previously too complicated for them to follow.
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We saw his star when it came up in the east, and we have come to worship him." King Herod called for the visitors and sent them to look for the child. When they were on their way they saw the same star and it went ahead of them until it came and stopped over the place where the child was. They went into the house, worshiped him and then opened their bags and offered him presents: gold, frankincense, and myrrh. God warned them in a dream not to go back to Herod; so they went back to their country by another road.
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Lastly there is the Ancient folk beliefs, which we will go in to more detail about. The Ancient folk Tradition in the sixth century came before the Vedic age, it was not influenced by the religion of the Brahmins. The ordinary people, Kshatriyas who followed the folk tradition had their own beliefs and practices, many of which were very ancient and pre-Aryan.
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He didn't tell his son about suffering and death because he didn't want to upset him. He was afraid that these things would stop him from becoming interested in religion. Because Siddhartha was a prince, he was taught the skills of archery, horsemanship, swordplay and martial arts. He was given the staff of beautiful young women to care for him and to look after him. When he was only nineteen, he married a beautiful princess named Yasodhara. Because she was a princess, she was allowed to choose her husband from the local princes. She chooses Siddhartha after a number of competitions, which included lots of things such as sports and the singing of love-songs!
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Gregor mainly struggles with alienation caused by his family's abandonment towards him. Gregor escapes from social order by renouncing social interaction and responsibilities. This freedom makes it possible for him to advance towards self-actualization. In the end, he acts bravely and selflessly to sacrifice his life for the love of his family. Both protagonists realize that they are imprisoned by a "dehumanizing society". The progress of self-actualization is a struggle to escape from social imprisonment accomplished by renunciation of social interactions and responsibilities. Both protagonists are imprisoned in a "dehumanizing" society (ClassNotes on Siddhartha, "Chapter 3: Analysis"), defined as a society that "deprives qualities thought of as being best in human beings"(Concise Dictionary & Thesaurus, "dehumanization").
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