• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Determination of Human Behaviours and The Metamorphosis

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Determination of Human Behaviours and The Metamorphosis Humanist psychologists believe that human behavior is not determined by psychological nor environmental forces, thus we have "free will" in making choices (Myers, p.437). Abraham Maslow combined the concept of actualizing tendency and free will to develop the theory of self-actualization (Myers, p.436). Self-actualization is one motivation to fulfill one's full potential (Mayers, p.436). "What a man can be, he must be" (Maslow, "The Need for Self Actualization") expresses Maslow's optimistic view about human growth. Herman Hesse's Siddhartha and Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis shares the story of struggle towards self-actualization. A young protagonist named Siddhartha is a Brahman who devotes his life in search for freedom from the endless life cycle of suffering. As he realizes that life in society is filled with suffering, he escapes from social life by renouncing social interactions and responsibilities. He progresses towards self-actualization by completing his quest for self-fulfillment. In Metamorphosis, the protagonist Gregor "woke up one morning from unsettling dreams, he found himself changed in his bed into a monstrous vermin" (Kafka, 1). Gregor mainly struggles with alienation caused by his family's abandonment towards him. ...read more.

Middle

As a father, Siddhartha feels responsible for his son who is without a mother. Knowing that his child brings suffering and that Siddhartha cannot provide him happiness, "guilt" and "love" restrains Siddhartha from abandoning his child. He realizes that his child repeats his abundance towards his own father, and he calls this experience Samsara. Understanding with appreciation that everyone has to experience life in his or her own direction, he is capable of renouncing responsibility of his child (ClassNotes on Siddhartha, "The Son"). Without social contact and responsibilities, Siddhartha's sufferings are ceased and Siddhartha is free to walk the path to self-actualization. When Siddhartha finally complete his life long quest towards self-fulfillment, which is mainly the lack of wisdom and happiness, he attains self-actualization. This internal satisfaction changes his external postures. His "glance and his hand, his skin and his hair, all radiate a purity, peace, serenity, gentleness and saintless" (120). He is at the state of Nirvana; this results from final cessation of all desires and sufferings. The major difference between the two works regarding renunciation of social interaction is that Siddhartha renounces social interactions willingly but in Metamorphosis, it is uncontrollable and undesirable. ...read more.

Conclusion

rather than Siddhartha's realization of changes in himself (selfishness). Gergor's humanity is restored by his sister's music. "Was he an animal, that music could move him so?" (49). In fact, Gregor is more human than any member of his family (ClassNotes on Metamorphosis, "Chapter 3 Analysis"). The music fills him with "deep emotion" that expresses his love for the family and leaves his room to tell his sister how much he appreciates her music. This action is the turning point where Gregor achieves self-actualization. He gains freedom due to renouncements of social interaction and responsibility to escape from the "imprisonment" (27), symbolized as his locked room. After the family admits their wish for his disappearance, he thinks "back on his family with deep emotion and love" (54). He decides that "he would have to disappear" (Kafka, 54) in order to restore the happiness of his family. Gregor's will to totally sacrifice for love of his family is a sign of being self-actualized and death is his way of sacrificing. Both protagonists in Metamorphosis and Siddhartha progress towards self-actualization by escaping from imprisonment by the dehumanizing society. This freedom is gained by renouncing social interactions and responsibility. Siddhartha achieves self-actualization by self-fulfillment; however, for Gregor it is achieved by self-sacrifice. ?? ?? ?? ?? Page: 1/6 Page: 3/6 Page: 4/6 Page: 5/6 Page: 6/6 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Buddhism section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Buddhism essays

  1. Buddhism is one of the biggest religions founded in India in the 6th and ...

    teachings of Buddha to accommodate a greater number of people: the "Greater Vehicle," or Mahayana Buddhism. The "Great Vehicle" was the name that the Buddhists came up for this new way of thinking, Mahayana Buddhism. The Buddhists spent much of their lives concentrating on reaching nirvana, which was balanced with everyday activities.

  2. Book report: Siddhartha from Herman Hesse

    Siddhartha was still a Samana in his heart. Despite his difference, he remained there, grew older, richer, and more spoiled by polished life than ever. Hating himself for what he had become, his dreams expressed longing for his past. He woke up one day with the need of getting rid of his present life.

  1. Select, describe and explain the events in the life of Siddhartha Gantama which illustrate ...

    It also helps Right Understanding. There are many different types of meditation, and whichever a Buddhist decides to practice, she/he should do so daily. Through each day, a Buddhist must try to maintain all of the following in the Eightfold Path in order to make any spiritual progress...

  2. Comparing Gotma to Siddhartha, why did Siddhartha reach his goal and not Gotma?

    Word comes of a great man, Gotma, who had reached nirvana. Surprising to Siddhartha, Govinda decides to seek out the illustrious one. Although Siddhartha has his doubts he is curious and travels with Govinda to listen to the Buddha. After hearing the teachings of the Buddha the simple and accepting Gotma immediately joins as his disciple.

  1. Why Buddhism, Why Now? AND WHY IN AMERICA

    mystical philosophies like Taoism, or humanistic religions like Confucianism, it has never before encountered anything like the Biblical religions since the days when Buddhism competed with the "divinely revealed" religion of the Vedas. Even then, the Vedic religion of ancient India was not anywhere near as exclusive or apocalyptic as Judeo-Christianity or Islam.

  2. Teachings Now the ...

    After enlightenment, the Buddha could now teach, and help others more supremely than ever before. Teachings Now the Buddha wanted to tell other people how to become wise, good and do service for others. He advised his followers to follow the Middle Way, avoiding the two extremes of self-indulgence and self-torture.

  1. Siddhartha by Hesse - review

    This is not something Siddhartha wanted, he wanted no desire. Since he believes that all teachings aim for the seeker to reach a goal, all teachings created desires. We learn because we have a desire to achieve something by following those teachings.

  2. We don't possess any genuine freedom to act ethically. Discuss.

    back to the basis of hard determinism that in essence things like our upbringing or genetics determines for us. Clarence Darrow was a supporter of this theory as evident in the Leopold and Loeb case in which two wealthy boys committed a most heinous murder

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work