• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Discuss some of the issues raised in Meta-Ethics. How convincing is the view that, when talking of morality, we are talking about facts?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AS Religious Studies Paper 2760 Foundation for the Study of Religion Part 2: Meta-Ethics Model Answer a). Discuss some of the issues raised in Meta-Ethics. (17 marks) b). How convincing is the view that, when talking of morality, we are talking about facts? (33 marks) (Total 50 marks) Notes: --> Remember, in an exam, you have 30 minutes to choose, plan, and write any essay. --> At AS Level, exam questions are twofold [i.e., there will be an (a) section and a (b) section]. --> Do not forget to answer both sections of a question! --> Usually, the marks appear beside each section of a question. --> In each question, section (a) holds 17 marks, and section (b) holds 33 marks. A total of 50 marks per question. --> Write your responses to questions appropriately - its no good having a detailed (a) section and a brief (b)! --> This model essay is structured so that it is realistic in its time expectations. --> If you have revised thoroughly, and know your stuff, you should be writing this sort of exam essay. --> Remember, do not waffle. ...read more.

Middle

b. How convincing is the view that, when talking of morality, we are talking about facts? But, when attempting to define 'good', and certainly when considering ethics as a whole, is it actually possible to say that moral systems deal with 'facts'? Some ethicists would claim not. GE Moore, for example, in his book Principia Ethica (1902) claimed that 'good' is impossible to define because it entirely depends on the moral codes a person brings to a particular situation. This would suggest that, owing to the wide range and variety of personal preference in ethical systems, it is impossible to talk of facts when dealing with morality. Moore, though, did suggest that 'good' was an entity in itself and that it was something which human beings intuitively sought. Indeed, human beings do a thing that is 'good' in order to achieve some long-term goal. However, he stated that in doing so, people commit what he coined the 'Naturalistic Fallacy'. Namely, that in finding oneself in a particular moral dilemma people assume it is natural and logical to shift immediately from dilemma to solution, treating moral conclusions as if they were absolute. ...read more.

Conclusion

agree because his 'value propositions' in moral dilemmas can easily be altered to produce a different outcome and, therefore, a different moral force; Hare claimed one cannot say moral rules are true or false, therefore failing to deliver morality to the territory of 'fact'; and, finally, Stevenson claims that individual moral codes are influenced by individual 'feelings' about the rightness or wrongness of an action, thus rendering factually-based morality a nonsense owing to the rich diversity of individual emotion. Indeed, the highly influential philosopher, AJ Ayer would agree with such an avowal because he suggested all moral statements are 'meaningless' statements. For example, how could one prove that it is wrong to cheat? He insisted that such statements as 'Is it wrong to cheat' are totally without meaning or provable sense because, logically and empirically, they cannot be shown to be true. All one can do is show that lots of people believe it is wrong to cheat. All they can do is express a personal dislike of cheats, cheating, and its consequences; they can express how they consider it to be unfair. That is, they can express how it does not coincide with what they believe to be fair and right - but that is all. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Practical Questions section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Practical Questions essays

  1. "It is impossible to reconcile any kind of determinism with the concept of freewill." ...

    Thus moral actions are not chance or random events, but result from the values and character of the moral agent. Some people may give into temptation, while others hold out as they have the freedom to do so. However the big question for libertarianism is how much moral responsibility and freewill do autonomous moral agents have in reality?

  2. Virtue ethics is of little use when dealing with practical ethics Discuss.

    Eg courage is the mean, between the tow vices coward and foolhardy. Aristotle said the mean is not the same for everyone and depends on circumstance and therefore you need to apply practical wisdom. Some people would disagree with Aristotle's golden mean; they say that virtue ethics seems to praise

  1. Utilitarianism essay.

    These are people of wide experience who, having experienced many pleasures, can decide between them. This is a rather elitist, snobbish view of morality that says we should follow the examples of so called 'moral experts' who know more about what is right then we do.

  2. In this essay I will be looking at Ethics and the importance of using ...

    Self respect - The counsellor will encounter lots of very emotional issues throughout their work. This principle is in place to protect the counsellor from any emotional/ physical harm. There is also an ethical responsibility to use supervision for personal and professional support and development.

  1. Explain and discuss the four major theories of meta-ethics; Naturalism, Emotivism, Intuitionism and Prescriptivism.

    murder is wrong - Boo. James Rachels criticised the emotive theory of ethics as he thinks there is much more to moral statements than an expression of feeling, and he believes that moral judgements appeal to reasons, just as any judgement appeals to reasons.

  2. "Virtue ethics is of little use when dealing with sexual ethics". Discuss - 35 ...

    if we are to be considered as good people in relation to this topic. Virtue ethics then seems to imply that an action is right if it is what a virtuous person who exercises the virtues would characteristically do in a situation.

  1. Explain the differences between absolute and relative morality. 'Relativist theories give no convincing reason ...

    it means that all sorts of actions can be justified, depending on the time period or culture surrounding them. A positive of normative relativism though is that it means we become tolerant of other societies as we cannot look down on them.

  2. A woman has the right to choose an abortion Discuss. (10 marks) A woman ...

    A follower of utilitarianism would agree that the women has the right to choose, it is in making the decision based solely on the one individuals case that will lead to the greatest happiness in that situation. For example if a pregnant women and her family and the child itself

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work