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Ethics - Terms to know

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Introduction

ETHICS TERMS TO KNOW Worldview--The way the world is seen & made sense of; framework of individual understanding. e.g. Deism - God abandoned creation Nihilism - Reality has no value; traditional values unfounded Existentialism - Life has no meaning but what we give it Eastern Pantheism - Polytheism, i.e. Hinduism Naturalism - Secular humanism / modernism; God is irrelevant--nothing exists but natural world New Age Pantheism - All is one; no distinction between plants, people; all are God Judeo-Christianity - There is only one God who created universe; God is involved w/ creation Post Modernism - God is dead; truth is a social construct; relativism prevails Ethics--The explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. ...read more.

Middle

In personam--Restricted rights (obligations fall on selected individuals). General Obligations--moral requirements of all moral beings. Role-related Obligations--moral requirements of specific roles, e.g. MD, priest, etc. Strong Paternalism--Forced acts of beneficence on person able to decide. Weak Paternalism--Forced acts of beneficence on person unable to decide. Negative Paternalism--Refraining from doing something to/for someone. 4 Main Ethical Principles / Values Nonmaleficence--Do no harm; (Primum non nocere - first, do no harm); a negative right. Beneficence--Do good; promoting the welfare of others; actively avoiding harm; a positive right. Autonomy--Non-interference with other's choices and freedom to make choices / self determination. Justice / Social Justice--Equal treatment for all. Ethical Systems Theories (*Related concepts) *Consequentialism--The end justifies the means; the rightness or wrongness of any action depends on its consequences. ...read more.

Conclusion

Paternalistic Model--Do what I say; decisions are made by healthcare professionals. Contractual Model--Let's make a deal; healthcare professionals give information--assist patients in decision-making by making recommendations. Confidentiality--Not divulging information which another has revealed on condition of secrecy; patient's right to privacy (of information). Deontological Argument for the Obligation of Confidentiality--Respecting confidentiality respects patient autonomy. Consequentialistic Argument for the Obligation of Confidentiality--Respecting confidentiality protects and promotes well-being of patients. 3 Accepted Exceptions for Divulging a Patient Confidence--Patient not competent, required by law, protect public interest. Truth Telling (Veracity)--Obligation to tell the truth. Consequentialistic Case for Telling and Withholding the Truth--Do what will most benefit/least harm patient; truth-telling / withholding truth context dependent. 3 (actually 4) Possible Exceptions to the Truth-Telling Rule--Family request, patient request, for the good of others (less so now), avoiding disastrous consequences (extreme cases). 5 Elements of Informed Consent--Competence, information disclosure, understanding, voluntariness, and authorization. ...read more.

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