• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Ethics - Terms to know

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

ETHICS TERMS TO KNOW Worldview--The way the world is seen & made sense of; framework of individual understanding. e.g. Deism - God abandoned creation Nihilism - Reality has no value; traditional values unfounded Existentialism - Life has no meaning but what we give it Eastern Pantheism - Polytheism, i.e. Hinduism Naturalism - Secular humanism / modernism; God is irrelevant--nothing exists but natural world New Age Pantheism - All is one; no distinction between plants, people; all are God Judeo-Christianity - There is only one God who created universe; God is involved w/ creation Post Modernism - God is dead; truth is a social construct; relativism prevails Ethics--The explicit, philosophical reflection on moral beliefs and practices. ...read more.

Middle

In personam--Restricted rights (obligations fall on selected individuals). General Obligations--moral requirements of all moral beings. Role-related Obligations--moral requirements of specific roles, e.g. MD, priest, etc. Strong Paternalism--Forced acts of beneficence on person able to decide. Weak Paternalism--Forced acts of beneficence on person unable to decide. Negative Paternalism--Refraining from doing something to/for someone. 4 Main Ethical Principles / Values Nonmaleficence--Do no harm; (Primum non nocere - first, do no harm); a negative right. Beneficence--Do good; promoting the welfare of others; actively avoiding harm; a positive right. Autonomy--Non-interference with other's choices and freedom to make choices / self determination. Justice / Social Justice--Equal treatment for all. Ethical Systems Theories (*Related concepts) *Consequentialism--The end justifies the means; the rightness or wrongness of any action depends on its consequences. ...read more.

Conclusion

Paternalistic Model--Do what I say; decisions are made by healthcare professionals. Contractual Model--Let's make a deal; healthcare professionals give information--assist patients in decision-making by making recommendations. Confidentiality--Not divulging information which another has revealed on condition of secrecy; patient's right to privacy (of information). Deontological Argument for the Obligation of Confidentiality--Respecting confidentiality respects patient autonomy. Consequentialistic Argument for the Obligation of Confidentiality--Respecting confidentiality protects and promotes well-being of patients. 3 Accepted Exceptions for Divulging a Patient Confidence--Patient not competent, required by law, protect public interest. Truth Telling (Veracity)--Obligation to tell the truth. Consequentialistic Case for Telling and Withholding the Truth--Do what will most benefit/least harm patient; truth-telling / withholding truth context dependent. 3 (actually 4) Possible Exceptions to the Truth-Telling Rule--Family request, patient request, for the good of others (less so now), avoiding disastrous consequences (extreme cases). 5 Elements of Informed Consent--Competence, information disclosure, understanding, voluntariness, and authorization. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Practical Questions section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Practical Questions essays

  1. Utilitarianism VS Kantian Deontological Ethics

    I reject utilitarianism, primarily on the basis that it is seems to be incompatible with human rights. For example, if slavery or torture is beneficial for the population as a whole, it could theoretically be justified by utilitarianism. Utilitarian theory thus seems to overlook the rights of minority groups.

  2. `Always tell the truth and Always keep your promises' Kant's Categorical Imperative.

    It is obvious that if I intend to obtain money under false pretences (by promising to pay it back, knowing full well that I do not intend doing so), then I am using the lender simply as a means to my own ends.

  1. Business Ethics

    Stakeholders including clients, credit grantors, governments, taxation authorities, employees, investors, the business and financial community etc perceive them as highly competent, reliable, objective and neutral people. Professional accountants therefore, must not only be well qualified but also possess a high degree of professional integrity.

  2. The Ethical Debate Concerning Cloning.

    The old God is dead. A good definition of medicine is "interference with nature" or "playing God." There are other such issues. On the social and political side we can see that at least three reforms in the delivery of health care are coming.

  1. Business Ethics

    In order to protect the consumers and the environment, governments introduce new legislations and control private companies in their ethical practises. For example, in the United Kingdom, there is a public interest disclosure act, signed in 1999, which assures full protection of all employees from victimisation.

  2. What is Meta-ethics?

    One of the groups is Intuitionism. An important intuitionist is G.E Moore; he agreed with Hume's idea and took it further. In his famous book 'Principia Ethica', he argued that ethical naturalism makes a mistake, and that moral statements can not be verified simply by looking at the evidence, using the five senses.

  1. Explain the differences between Cultural Relativism and Cultural Absolutism

    Tribe in Uganda, were studied in a report by Turnbull and he was ?shocked? by the way they have had to adapt for survival, he says they have little empathy for each other and will not share food with the weak or elderly.

  2. Does the "War on Terror" mean the just war doctrine is dead?

    Just in bello advocates for restrictions on the proper conduct of war, it predominantly focused on who can be attacked, what means can be used to attack them and the proper treatment of prisoners. The United States and NATO forces in their counter terror war has violated every single principle

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work