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An investigation to find out if there is a relationship between the concentration of phosphate ions in nutrient solutions and the number of cells dividing by mitosis in root tips

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Introduction

Biology Planning Exercise Aim: An investigation to find out if there is a relationship between the concentration of phosphate ions in nutrient solutions and the number of cells dividing by mitosis in root tips Background information: Mitosis is the nuclear division of a cell producing two genetically identical daughter nuclei, each containing the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. Mitosis is a continuous cycle but has been divided into four stages; prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase. The following are each of the phases described in more detail. 1. The Prophase * The two centrosomes of the cell, each with its pair of centrioles, move nnnnn to opposite "poles" of the cell. * The mitotic spindle forms. This is an array of microtubules, synthesized n from tubulin monomers in the cytoplasm, that develops from each nnnnnncentrosome. * The chromosomes become shorter and more compact. * The nuclear envelope disintegrates. * A protein structure, the kinetochore, appears at the centromere of each nnnnnchromatid. * With the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, spindle fibers attach to nnnnnnthe kinetochores as well as to the arms of the chromosomes. The microtubules attached to a kinetochore exert tension on its chromatid. For each dyad, one of the kinetochores is attached to one pole, the second (or sister) ...read more.

Middle

So by taking all of the above into account my overall predication is: that the more phosphate present, the more mitosis taking place. Preliminary experiment: In this experiment I prepared and observed of the stages of mitosis in root tips. I did this by preparing a squash slide to view under a microscope. I understood the consequences of adding too much acetic orcein (stained chromosomes too deeply.) I heated the hydrochloric acid by warming over a flame; I developed this for my method, as it was not an accurate technique. The temperature couldn't be controlled and therefore could disrupt my results so I plan on using a water bath at a set temperature and a thermometer to ensure the temperature was maintained. Apparatus: � Garlic clove - roots � Microscope � Nutrient solution � Phosphate tablets - vary concentrations � Acetic orcein � Slides & coverslips � Scalpel � Watch glass � Filter paper -mop excess liquids � HCL (2.0 mol dm3) � Thermometer � Waterbath � Test tubes � Glass rod � Volumetric flasks � Beakers Experiment Method: 1. Label 7 250cm volumetric flasks 0-5 & 10 2. Add one phosphate tablet to flask 1 and so on respectively. (flask 0 no tablets are added) 3. Fill flasks with distilled water, read at eye level and ensure that meniscus is resting on the line. ...read more.

Conclusion

Tongs were used to move the glassware to and from on top of the gauze and the working area, to prevent burns which was also minimalised because the glassware was at a safer temperature due to the indirect heating of the dish. Acetic orcien stain Irritant, carcinogen, corrosive, danger if inhaled evaporation leads to fumes being released. Stains fingers and clothes. Safety glasses worn as throughout the experiment to protect eyes in case acid splashed in eyes. Gloves worn to protect accidental contact with skin and staining. Lab furniture and accessories Stools and bags etc. cause hazard of tripping over them especially dangerous if carrying equipment. Hazard of long hair and loose articles of clothing setting alight by catching Bunsen flame accidentally. Coats removed along with bags placed along one side of the lab not blocking any passage, stools tucked under desks and loose articles of clothing removed. Long hair tied back. To reduce incidents with Bunsen, which was also always left on a safety flame when not in use so no burns due to visibility of the blue flame. Hydrochloric acid Corrosive, irritant Gloves and goggles worn to prevent contact with skin and eyes. Lid always replaced and bottle always put back in resource tray to reduce spillages as with the acetic orcian stain. ...read more.

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