• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

An investigation to find out if there is a relationship between the concentration of phosphate ions in nutrient solutions and the number of cells dividing by mitosis in root tips

Extracts from this document...


Biology Planning Exercise Aim: An investigation to find out if there is a relationship between the concentration of phosphate ions in nutrient solutions and the number of cells dividing by mitosis in root tips Background information: Mitosis is the nuclear division of a cell producing two genetically identical daughter nuclei, each containing the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. Mitosis is a continuous cycle but has been divided into four stages; prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase. The following are each of the phases described in more detail. 1. The Prophase * The two centrosomes of the cell, each with its pair of centrioles, move nnnnn to opposite "poles" of the cell. * The mitotic spindle forms. This is an array of microtubules, synthesized n from tubulin monomers in the cytoplasm, that develops from each nnnnnncentrosome. * The chromosomes become shorter and more compact. * The nuclear envelope disintegrates. * A protein structure, the kinetochore, appears at the centromere of each nnnnnchromatid. * With the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, spindle fibers attach to nnnnnnthe kinetochores as well as to the arms of the chromosomes. The microtubules attached to a kinetochore exert tension on its chromatid. For each dyad, one of the kinetochores is attached to one pole, the second (or sister) ...read more.


So by taking all of the above into account my overall predication is: that the more phosphate present, the more mitosis taking place. Preliminary experiment: In this experiment I prepared and observed of the stages of mitosis in root tips. I did this by preparing a squash slide to view under a microscope. I understood the consequences of adding too much acetic orcein (stained chromosomes too deeply.) I heated the hydrochloric acid by warming over a flame; I developed this for my method, as it was not an accurate technique. The temperature couldn't be controlled and therefore could disrupt my results so I plan on using a water bath at a set temperature and a thermometer to ensure the temperature was maintained. Apparatus: � Garlic clove - roots � Microscope � Nutrient solution � Phosphate tablets - vary concentrations � Acetic orcein � Slides & coverslips � Scalpel � Watch glass � Filter paper -mop excess liquids � HCL (2.0 mol dm3) � Thermometer � Waterbath � Test tubes � Glass rod � Volumetric flasks � Beakers Experiment Method: 1. Label 7 250cm volumetric flasks 0-5 & 10 2. Add one phosphate tablet to flask 1 and so on respectively. (flask 0 no tablets are added) 3. Fill flasks with distilled water, read at eye level and ensure that meniscus is resting on the line. ...read more.


Tongs were used to move the glassware to and from on top of the gauze and the working area, to prevent burns which was also minimalised because the glassware was at a safer temperature due to the indirect heating of the dish. Acetic orcien stain Irritant, carcinogen, corrosive, danger if inhaled evaporation leads to fumes being released. Stains fingers and clothes. Safety glasses worn as throughout the experiment to protect eyes in case acid splashed in eyes. Gloves worn to protect accidental contact with skin and staining. Lab furniture and accessories Stools and bags etc. cause hazard of tripping over them especially dangerous if carrying equipment. Hazard of long hair and loose articles of clothing setting alight by catching Bunsen flame accidentally. Coats removed along with bags placed along one side of the lab not blocking any passage, stools tucked under desks and loose articles of clothing removed. Long hair tied back. To reduce incidents with Bunsen, which was also always left on a safety flame when not in use so no burns due to visibility of the blue flame. Hydrochloric acid Corrosive, irritant Gloves and goggles worn to prevent contact with skin and eyes. Lid always replaced and bottle always put back in resource tray to reduce spillages as with the acetic orcian stain. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. An experiment into looking at cell division in a garlic root tip

    The root tips were then washed twice with distilled water in a clean watch glass to remove any excess acid. 3. The feulgen regent was then added and again the garlic root tips were placed in the oven at 60�C for 30 minutes.

  2. An experiment to find of the isotonic point of root vegetables cells in contents ...

    * Core Borer (size 4) - This will used to cut an extract cylinder shape from the root vegetable required for this experiment. The diameter of the core borer needs to be the same ensuring that the experiment is fair; this will also ensure that each root vegetable has the same surface area to volume ratio.

  1. To find out how different concentrations of sucrose solution affect the incipient plasmolysis of ...

    Labels will be placed onto the McCartney bottles to distinguish between the different concentrations of sucrose solution added to the different root vegetables this will prevent confusion and contamination. 11) Two different pipettes will be used to prevent contamination when serial dilution takes place which can affect the concentrations hence the reliability of the results.

  2. A Level Biology revision notes

    * If X = mm and Y = �m * Convert mm to �m = X * 1000 o Magnification = X�m / Y�m Feature Optical microscope Electron microscope Radiation Light Electrons Magnification 400x (max1500) �500 000x Resolution 2�m 1nm / 0,001�m Electrons have a small wavelength Thus, higher resolution

  1. The effect of phosphate on cell division in root tips

    If I examine a range of squashed plant tips, each of which have been cultured in a solution that have different phosphate concentrations, it is possible that I can determine a pattern and I will then be able to conclude what effect a lack, or an excess, of phosphates has on the mitotic cycle.

  2. Catalyse Investigation

    Also, I would have done the experiment with a piece of liver too, just to make sure that the catalyse activity is the same in the liver as the potato. Although, I already know from what I have been taught, that the liver would give similar results to the potato.

  1. Mitosis In Onion Root Tips - Cell Cycle

    Prepare an onion by placing it in water for ten days. 2) Cut the onion into small parts using sharp scalpel. 3) Tear a thin piece of tissue from the epidermal layer from the inner side of the slice using clamps.

  2. An Investigation Into the Stages of Mitosis

    The nuclear envelope seems to have disappeared - it is no longer visible with a light microscope as it has been broken down into small vesicles. The nucleus also 'disappears' forming a part of several chromosomes. Each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids joined together by the centromere.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work