• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Biology Report - Effect of Environment on Phenotype

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

REPORT - THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON PHENOTYPE Ruby Mitchell EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN HYPOTHESIS 1 AIM 1 METHOD 1-2 VARIABLES 2-3 RESULTS DATA COLLECTED 4-7 CONCLUSION RELIABILITY AND VALIDILITY 8 INTRODUCTION: The phenotypes of many flowering plants that share a common genotype, are often affected by their environment. Phenotypes result from the expression of an organism's genes as well as the influence of environmental factors. By altering a particular feature of the environment in a controlled situation it is possible to demonstrate this concept. I have chosen to observe the effect of the alteration of a pH on a plants phenotype. A perennial geranium plant was used for this investigation, as it is fast growing, and ideal for cuttings. The pH was altered between cuttings of the same genotype, and a change in phenotype was measured according to root growth. AIM: To demonstrate how the alteration of a plants pH, or environment, will cause changes in the phenotype of that organism. HYPOTHESIS: The alteration of pH in the plant's environment will result in the variation of root growth. PH affects plant growth because it affects the availability of nutrients to the plants. Plants can be affected greatly by the water or substance being used to water it, affecting the way the plant grows and therefore its phenotype. ...read more.

Middle

- Light Availability: All specimens were located together in a partial shade area, receiving sunlight in the mornings. Further objects that could have blocked light to any individual plant were removed, to prevent variation in levels of photosynthesis, that would in turn impact on root growth. - Air Temperature: Temperature between the individual plants was not varied as they were all located in the same place and had equivalent water availability and light exposure. - Independent Variable: The effect of four different pH solutions was tested on 16 plants, and 4 were used for a control (water of a neutral pH). The levels of pH that were tested include, >7.6, 7.4, Neutral, 6.6 and <6.4. There were therefore 4 specimens being tested for each pH level. To ensure the validity of the investigation it was necessary to ensure that all 4 specimens for each group obtained their assigned pH levels. Five containers of water were used to disperse pH-altered water into each of the cups, in order to prevent variation of pH within the five different groups of plants. This eliminated error that may have occurred in attempting to individually alter the pH of the water that accommodated each plant. ...read more.

Conclusion

When compared to the root growth of the groups with altered pH levels and the same genotype, it is evident that this change in the plants environment causes an alteration in phenotype. However, there was one problem encountered when assessing the root growth of the group of plants with a high alkaline level (pH >7.6). A black fungi grew on all the stems of the cuttings, during the 3rd week of investigation. This was most likely caused by the high alkaline levels in the water. It appeared as if the fungi impeded root growth on this group of plants as only two cuttings showed signs of root growth. The two plants only sprouted one root both of 0.5mm in length. This became an uncontrollable variable, as it was impossible to conclude whether or not it was the alkalinity that was a direct cause of the little root growth. If the experiment was repeated, I would further the investigation by researching the exact cause of the fungal growth and possibly reduce the pH level to gain results that would not be effected by the growth. Regardless of this fault in the experiment there were still enough pH groups to compare to the control in order to make a valid conclusion. The other three pH groups (6.4, 6.6 and 7.4) all supported the hypothesis by demonstrating a change in phenotype in comparison to the control. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    This concept is somewhat reinforced by the background research ratio, which demonstrates Telophase to be the second longest phase, closely following prophase. This was the trend also in the observed experimental results; demonstrating the degree to which the background cellular ratio is corroborated and reinforced by the gained results.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The daphnia lab report

    3 star(s)

    A female will have as many as 25 broods (cluster of daphnia babies) in her life span but on average it's about 6 broods or 600 and up number of daphnia infants.

  1. microbiology ph and temperature effect on bacterial culture

    Within this broth it contains all the nutrients in which the bacteria can survive and reproduce in. Before measuring the absorbance of the two bacteria's in liquid broth each test should start off with the absorbance of the liquid broth by it self as this would standardise the colorimeter to read at 0.00 absorbance units.

  2. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    For example, there is a 'Dyscovery' centre in Whitchurch, Cardiff, which offer Support for those with a wide range of disorders or syndromes and their families. This also included training for parents, professionals and the general public. (NAS. Online, 2006).

  1. Planning an investigation into salt marsh and sand dune vegetation.

    It is an SSSI and a Ramsar site. It was formed by the process of longshore drift, but its present shape and direction have been affected by sea defences that have been interrupting this process for nearly 200 years. During the 1960's and 1970's the sea breached the narrow Hinge.

  2. Free essay

    Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: ...

    Competition for resources: * Competition for resources affects evolution because the survival of a species relies heavily on its ability to obtain the resources needed for life. An Example - Dinosaurs: * When the dinosaurs were the dominant life form on Earth, mammals were very scarce.

  1. Investigating what effect varying the concentration of copper sulphate has on the enzyme Catalase ...

    ionic bonds that hold the enzyme structure in place and so denatures the enzyme. This graph shows how the temperature affects the activity of an enzyme. So as the temperature increases, the enzyme activity also increases up until the enzymes optimum temperature.

  2. What is the relationship between genotype and phenotype?

    Note that the genotype can not always be deciphered from the phenotype of the organism, as in the case of the alleles for plant height in a Salvia, both the genotypes Tt (heterozygote) and TT (homozygote) both give rise to tall plants. Thus, the genotype is often determined through crosses.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work