• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Cervical Cancer Vaccine. I decided to speak to a professional to obtain their opinion on the Cervical Cancer vaccine. I contacted my local surgery and spoke to one of their doctors.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AS Biology Coursework Cervical Cancer Glossary Page 1 - The problem A possible solution - The Cervical Cancer Vaccine How the vaccine works Page 2 - How effective is the vaccine? A professional's opinion Page 3 - Implications Page 4 - Alternative solutions to the Cervical Cancer Vaccine Page 5 - Alternative solutions to the Cervical Cancer Vaccine (continued) Page 6 - References and Bibliography Cervical Cancer The Problem Cervical Cancer is the second most common cancer in women under 35 years old. It is the leading cause of cancer death for women in developing countries. About 2,900 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer in the UK each year; in 2007 alone Cervical cancer caused 941 deaths in the UK.[1] Overall, 2 out of every 100 cancers diagnosed in women are cervical cancers. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the major cause of the main types of cervical cancer - squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinoma. There are over 100 different types of human papilloma virus (HPV) and two of these types cause 70% of the cases of Cervical Cancer. Up to 8 out of 10 people (80%) in the UK are infected with the HPV virus at some time during their lifetime. ...read more.

Middle

This graph shows that the number of deaths from Measles, Scarlet Fever, Typhoid, Whooping Cough and Diphtheria were dramatically reduced when vaccines concerning these infectious diseases were introduced. [7] Implications Safety of the vaccine Studies show that the vaccine is extremely safe as there are no live viruses in the vaccine. The vaccine underwent extensive safety checks before it was introduced. However, the risk of severe, life-threatening reactions after immunisation has been estimated at about one per million vaccine doses. It is not clear whether death is a result of a reaction to the vaccine, or to an underlying health condition that the patient already had. It could even have been a psychological response to the vaccine; where patients believe they have had symptoms when in fact no physical reaction to the vaccine has occurred. Costs of the vaccine The Cervical Cancer vaccine is not cheap, per patient the vaccine costs around �300, which is delivered as three injections over a six-month period. The immunisation of 12- and 13-year-olds will cost �100m a year and the catch-up campaign for girls under 18 will cost up to �200m a year. ...read more.

Conclusion

Smoking combined with an HPV infection can actually accelerate cervical dysplasia. 3. Limiting the amount of sexual partners you have and using a condom - Studies have shown women who have an increased number of sexual partners have an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. They also are increasing their risk of developing HPV, a known cause for cervical cancer. Studies have also shown that having unprotected sex puts you at risk for HIV and other STD's which can increase your risk factor for developing cervical cancer. Therefore having protected sex will decrease the risk of developing cervical cancer. 1. Evaluation I think the sources I used are reliable as they are from professional websites including Cancer Research UK and the Gynaecologic Cancer Foundation. My non-web source is a NHS booklet and I also got the opinion of a doctor, which is a reliable source as he possesses expertise in this field of knowledge. My opinion on the solutions for Cervical Cancer Females are very fortunate that Cervical Cancer can now be prevented from developing. However it is important not to rely on just one possible solution for Cervical Cancer. Different solutions, for example having the vaccination and also having regular Pap smear tests, need to be combined to get the best results and to maintain good health. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Explain the link between cancer and mitosis. Describe how the chances of cancer developing ...

    4 star(s)

    Some of the factors that increase mutation rates, and therefore the likelihood of cancer, include chemicals, viruses, and ionising radiation. Cancers have also been known to have hereditary links. Ionising radiation includes X-rays, gammer rays and particles from the decay of radioactive material.

  2. Should homeopathy be available on the NHS?

    To be statistically significant, the results were place into groups of either "positive" or "negative". To be place into one of these two groups, the homeopathy group was either superior or inferior to the controlled trial. To regard the results as statistically conclusive, one significant finding out of a maximum of three was regarded as the result.

  1. Cell death during embryogenesis

    The study of Drosophila melanogaster mutants that completely lack developmental apoptosis has allowed this question to be addressed. These studies indicate that in these organisms' apoptosis is not necessary for some aspects of normal development (White et al., 1994). However it is now clear that the components of the apoptotic

  2. blood smear

    across a glass slide, dried, and then stained with a special dye. Once the stain has dried, the slide is evaluated under a microscope by a laboratorian. method; 2. To create a blood smear a single drop of blood is spread in a thin layer across a glass slid that

  1. The costs of cigarette smoking

    Both of these changes can contribute to permanent shortness of breath and to lung diseases such as emphysema. Disturbed Mitochondria: Cell biologists have exposed eukaryotic cells to cigarette smoke, and then viewed their mitochondria membranes with an electron microscope. The smoke destroyed the mitochondria's normal internal structure, and with it,

  2. ENZYMES COURSEWORK

    Increasing temperature easily disrupts hydrogen bonds. This, in turn, may disrupt the shape of the enzyme so that its affinity for its substrate diminishes. The ascending portion of the temperature curve (red arrow in right-hand graph above) reflects the general effect of increasing temperature on the rate of chemical reactions (graph at left).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work