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Chemistry planning exercise

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Introduction

Finding out how much Acid there is in a Solution. The aim of my investigation is to find the concentration of sulphuric (VI) acid from a sample. The solution is thought to have a concentration between 0.05 and 0.15 moldm-3. To do this I will perform a titration involving sulphuric (VI) acid and sodium carbonate. A titration involves reacting a standard solution with another who's concentration is unknown. I am given anhydrous sodium carbonate so will have to prepare a standard solution of this before attempting the titration. The indicator I will be using to indicate when the reaction is fully completed is methyl orange.(6) This is because I am using a strong acid and a weak alkali and methyl orange is the most appropriate indicator for this type of acid-base titration.The standard solution must be of a certain concentration for the titration to be a success. This is dependant upon the concentration of sulphuric (VI) acid. As this value ranges from 0.05 and 0.15 moldm-3 I can assume an average value of 0.10 moldm-3 as its concentration. The reaction taking place will be H2S04 + Na2C03 H2CO3 + Na2S04 As this equation is in a 1:1 molar ratio, the same concentrations of both sulphuric (VI) acid and sodium carbonate should be used. Preparing a Standard Solution A standard solution of sodium carbonate needs to be prepared. ...read more.

Middle

Rinse the beaker well, making sure all liquid goes into the volumetric flask. (The solid may be transferred directly into the volumetric flask, through the filter funnel but only if the solid will dissolve easily and if the funnel has a wide enough stem to prevent blockage). 6. Add distilled water until the level is within 1 cm of the mark on the neck of the flask. Insert the stopper and shake to mix the contents. 7. Using the dropping pipette, add enough water to bring the bottom of the meniscus to the mark on the volumetric flask. Insert the stopper and shake thoroughly 10 times to ensure complete mixing. 8. Label the flask with the contents, your name and the date. After finishing the standard solution an acid-base titration must be done to determine the concentration of a sample of sulphuric (VI) acid by titrating against a standard solution of sodium carbonate (0.1 mol.) Using the standard solution of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) as a primary standard and titrating it against sulphuric (VI) acid the following reaction takes place: - H2S04 + Na2C03 H2CO3 + Na2S04 To show when this reaction is complete (the equivalent point) you use an indicator called methyl orange. This changes from yellow to orange and finally to red in a solution becoming more acidic. ...read more.

Conclusion

(1) Safety When completing the experiment certain safety procedures have to be taken into account: - 1. Safety spectacles must be worn at all times to ensure no chemicals, or broken glassware enters the eye. 2. A lab coat must be worn as to stop chemicals getting on clothing. 3. You must not run in the lab as to not knock over any chemicals or equipment. 4. 0.1 molar sulphuric (VI) acid is an irritant so if any gets on the skin it must be washed off immediately. (2) 5. Methyl orange is slightly hazardous in the case of skin or eye contact (irritant). Care should be taken, if any gets on the skin it should be washed off immediately. (3) If the plan is carried out to the highest level of accuracy as stated in the plan and measurements are also accurate; this should provide precise results. If concordant results are used this ensures the reliability of the results. The materials used must be used accurately, such as the weighing scales, to 0.001g and the glassware, so that the bottom of the meniscus is on the appropriate reading. The titration must be carried out as the plan states, the burette must be filled inside the scale and the conical flask accurately. The equipment must be cleaned properly before use with the appropriate chemical or distilled water to ensure precise and accurate results. The standard solution must be 0.1 molar to ensure an accurate titration. ...read more.

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