• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

CLONING - Discusion

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

CLONING The possibility of human cloning, raised when Scottish scientists at Roslin Institute created the much-celebrated sheep "Dolly", created worldwide interest and concern because of its scientific and ethical implications. The feat, cited by Science magazine as the breakthrough of 1997, also generated uncertainty over the meaning of "cloning" a term traditionally used by scientists to describe different processes for duplicating biological material. When the media report on cloning in the news, they are usually talking about only one type called reproductive cloning. There are different types of cloning however, and cloning technologies can be used for other purposes besides producing the genetic twin of another organism. A basic understanding of the different types of cloning is important to taking an informed stance on current public policy issues and making the best possible personal decisions. The following three types of cloning technologies will be discussed: a) recombinant DNA technology or DNA cloning, b) ...read more.

Middle

coli cells. BACs utilize the naturally occurring F-factor plasmid found in E. coli to carry 100 to 300 kb DNA inserts. A YAC is a functional chromosome derived from yeast that can carry up to 1 MB of foreign DNA. Bacteria are most often used as the host cells for recombinant DNA molecules, but yeast and mammalian cells also are used. Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. Dolly was created by reproductive cloning technology. In a process called "somatic cell nuclear transfer" (SCNT), scientists transfer genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg whose nucleus, and thus its genetic material, has been removed. The reconstructed egg containing the DNA from a donor cell must be treated with chemicals or electric current in order to stimulate cell division. Once the cloned embryo reaches a suitable stage, it is transferred to the uterus of a female host where it continues to develop until birth. ...read more.

Conclusion

Stem cells are extracted from the egg after it has divided for 5 days. The egg at this stage of development is called a blastocyst. The extraction process destroys the embryo, which raises a variety of ethical concerns. Many researchers hope that one day stem cells can be used to serve as replacement cells to treat heart disease, Alzheimer's, cancer, and other diseases. In November 2001, scientists from Advanced Cell Technologies (ACT), a biotechnology company in Massachusetts, announced that they had cloned the first human embryos for the purpose of advancing therapeutic research. To do this, they collected eggs from women's ovaries and then removed the genetic material from these eggs with a needle less than 2/10,000th of an inch wide. A skin cell was inserted inside the enucleated egg to serve as a new nucleus. The egg began to divide after it was stimulated with a chemical called ionomycin. The results were limited in success. Although this process was carried out with eight eggs, only three began dividing, and only one was able to divide into six cells before stopping. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    background research collected on the mitotic phase lengths in the embryonic grasshopper cells. The last stage of this process of nuclear cell division, Telophase, also follows the predictions made concerning the observed cellular counts, exhibiting a calculated average of 15 cells, compared to the 21 of prophase, and the 7 of both metaphase and anaphase.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Human Cloning Assignment

    4 star(s)

    Gene supplementation is proving to be a possible solution for some "loss of function" conditions such as Cystic Fibrosis where a gene is missing. In the case of Cystic Fibrosis an aerosol inhaler is being developed which will allow sufferers to take in the missing gene into the lungs by inhaling artificially formed spheres known as liposome.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The daphnia lab report

    3 star(s)

    To get the number of beats per minute the heart beats were multiplied by 4. 9. Step 5-8 were repeated for the other five solutions using a new daphnia every time and from each caffeine concentration, heart rate (bpm)

  2. Peer reviewed

    The cloning of Dolly.

    4 star(s)

    Another application of cloning technology is the production of embryonic cells. This is when special embryos without defects are cloned from cells. This could be helpful in treating certain diseases. Before there can be significant use of these applications, however, some practical difficulties must be resolved, as only a small

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    A simple point mutation--the substitution of one nucleotide for another in the DNA sequence of a gene--can cause a profound change in the protein product encoded by that gene. For example, the substitution of a guanine for a cytosine nucleotide in the DNA sequence of the ras oncogene on chromosome

  2. Oncogenes are genes that cause cancer.

    The discovery that cells too have oncogenes has implications extending far beyond tumor virology. The Origin of Oncogenes In 1972 Dominique Stehelin, Varmus and I set out to explore the "oncogene hypothesis" proposed by Robert J. Huebner and George J.

  1. DNA cloning or gene cloning

    The human genome project which is researching the human genome plans to give scientists more information on human cloning. Last year advanced cell technologies in Worcester, Massachusetts announced that it had cloned a human embryo. An Italian doctor, Severino Antinori has said that he has cloned and implanted a human embryo in a woman's uterus.

  2. Chromosomes and DNA

    The nucleus of the pollen grain passes down the tube. It fertilises the egg cell inside the ovule. The fertilised egg cell develops into an embryo. The ovary becomes the fruit and the ovule becomes the seed. Ecology Adaptation, predation and competition The survival of living organisms depends on how well they have adapted to their environment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work