Comparison of a plant and animal cell.
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Emma Walters Comparison of a Plant and Animal Cell Every single living thing in the world is made up of cells. They are the basis for life and are made up of microscopic components called organelles, which carry out specific tasks. All cells differ from one to the other. There are two main groups of cells - Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells. The two types of Eukaryotic cells are plant and animal cells. There are many common elements between a plant and animal cell, but also some differences. In this essay I am going to explore these similarities and differences and find out why they contain different organelles. Similarities between plants and animal cells are that they are both Eukaryotic. This means that they both have a nucleus. They need this nucleus, as the brain of the cell, to help decide what comes in and out of it, and to hold all the genetic codes within it.
The Rough E R makes proteins and sends them to the Golgi apparatus to be packaged. Both animal and plant cells contain the Golgi apparatus, which is made of Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum and modifies the proteins and packages them. When it has released them, they are known as Vesicles, which float in the cell ready for endocytosis and exocytosis. The Golgi apparatus also makes lysosomes, which contain hydrolytic enzymes, which kill infections in the cell, and are the self-destruct button for the whole cell. Both cells also contain a Centrosome, inside which are spindles of chromosomes. There are a few differences between an animal cell and a plant cell. An animal cell has microfilaments, which are made of a protein called tubulin, and these float around in the cytoplasm. Both have a Centrosome, but within the animal Centrosome is a Centriole, this is used to help in cell division.
Plant cells have Chloroplast to absorb sunlight, and combine it with carbon dioxide and water. This then photosynthesises so that they can produce starch for the rest of the plant, for it to use as energy. Animal cells do not need to photosynthesise, so they do not have chloroplasts. From this I can tell that the plant and animal cells are very similar, but also have a few differences that they need to survive in their own way. Each organelle within each cell has very specific tasks that it needs in order to survive. An animal cell needs to carry out many functions such as respiration, cell division and having the ability to kill bacteria. A plant cell also needs to respire and kill infections, but it needs to be able to photosynthesise and keep turgor pressure as well. This is why they have many components that are the same, but they also have differences.
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