biology differences in animal and plant cells

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Sarah Huckerby 30059987 Di Paul Biology Group 1

Contrasting the structure of plant and animal cells

Modern cell theory states that all living matter is composed of cells and they arise from other cells. They contain hereditary information of the organisms of which they are a part; the cell is the basic unit of all living matter.

Cell are made up of Protoplasm, which is a granular substance resembling the white of an egg, the cell membrane, inorganic salts, carbohydrates for energy, Lipids which are fats and nitrogenous substances, amino acids which are obtained from proteins (Moth.E 2003)

Organisms mostly consist of Eukaryotic cells, which contain a true nucleus and also contain other organelles which are sub-cellular, permanent structures that carry out particular functions in the cell. Plant and animals are composed of cells that have many similarities.

All plant and animal cells have a nucleus surrounded by Cytoplasm bound by a cell membrane, cytoplasm is the material inside the cell but outside the nucleus, it contains different structures and substances.

It is the "brain" of the cell and is contained within the nuclear membrane (which insures that the interior of the nucleus is isolated from the cells cytoplasm allowing two different environments to be maintained,)it contains pairs of chromosomes each carrying hereditary DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) (Toole, G & S 1984) the nucleus controls every organelle with the Cytoplasm.
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Within the nucleus is the Nucleolus, It is a small structure within the nucleus that forms ribosomes which then pass into the cytoplasm to produce protein (Moth.E 2003)

The cell membranes is a fine membrane made of protein and lipids, it has two functions to keep the cytoplasm and the nucleus in.

Plant and animal cells contain mitochondria, they are distinct organelles with two membranes, usually they are rod shaped, however they can be round, the outer membrane limit's the organelle, the inner membrane in thrown into folds or shelves that project inward, the organelles contain ...

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*** This essay adequately describes cell structure in some paragraphs but does not always manage to highlight the key differences and similarities between plant and animal cells, which are the focus of the essay title. The four SKILL AREAS which are usually marked for in a biology essay are: scientific content, breadth of knowledge, relevance and quality of language. To improve: Scientific content: The essay should cover all the main areas relevant to the topic and must include discussion of each area with suitable examples. This essay has a title of " Contrasting plant and animal cells" so most of the material should be comparing and contrasting plant and animal cells. The main problem with this essay is that large sections are paragraphs about cell ultrastructure and do not attempt to highlight key similarities and differences. Referring back to the title is a good way to ensure that the essay stays focused. The inclusion of a brief plan is helpful so that the essay has a logical structure eg. listing all the key structural similarities first and then the differences. The essay should only contain very few factual errors and some are present in this essay. The writer should take care not to generalize as it easy to overstate the case and present incorrect information. Breath of knowledge: A well balanced account, making reference to most areas that might be realistically covered in an A-level course of study but with some factual errors. Relevance: All material presented is clearly relevant to the title but could have been presented in a way that referred back to the title a little more. Quality of Written Communication: Most of the key biological terms were used correctly but the sentence construction was poor in some cases. The essay would be improved if the student did not try to write long, interlinked sentences that did not follow on correctly. The construction of shorter, sharper sentences containing one clear statement of fact would make this more creditworthy.