• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

dna extraction from peas

Extracts from this document...


An experiment investigating the extraction of DNA from peas. Introduction Deoxyribonucleic acid or its commonly known name DNA - is a molecule that contains our genes. It forms part of a chromosome and is only found inside the nucleus of a cell. Our DNA consists of units called nucleotides. Each consists of a 5-carbon sugar, deoxiyribose, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base - adenine (a), cytosine (c), guanine (g) or thymine (t). The DNA molecule consists of 2 strands twisted together to form a double helix (almost like a twisted ladder). The phosphate and the sugar molecules make up the sides of the ladder, with the nitrogenous bases making up the steps of the ladder The genes hold all the instructions for making all the thousands of proteins that are found in a cell. It is these proteins, which determine what, the cell will look like and what jobs that particular cell will do. ...read more.


Method 1. 50g of garden peas were mashed with a pestle and mortar, adding a little of the extraction buffer (washing up liquid) to help with the mashing process. 2. Then the mashed peas were carefully transferred into the beaker containing the rest of the extraction buffer. 3. The beaker was then placed into a water bath at a temperature of 60�C for exactly 15 minutes. 4. The mixture in the beaker was then left standing on ice for two minutes and then mashed carefully with a pestle and mortar in small batches. 5. The mixture was then placed through coarse filter paper - to remove all of the cell debris. 6. 10ml of the filtrate was then poured into a test tube and 3 drops of protease was added. The test tube was then placed into ice to keep cold. 7. Then, using a pipette, 10ml of ice-cold ethanol was added down the side of the test tube - resulting in two distinct layers of liquid. ...read more.


The DNA of the pea is insoluble in freezing cold ethanol and will therefore precipitate into the upper ethanol layer via air bubbles. Evaluation If the experiment was to be repeated again, I would use a larger volume of peas, by doing so - it would result in a larger volume of DNA being extracted. Further investigations of DNA extraction could be carried out by using blood or any other food product, providing that health and safety issues are dealt with. If the DNA was to be extracted from the test tube, it could then be stained and examined further by using a technique called X-ray crystallography, as even the most powerful microscope is unable to detect any DNA image. (www. learn.genetics.utah.edu) Reference http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/extraction/howto/faq.html (viewed 25/02/209) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_extraction (viewed 25/02/209) http://library.thinkquest.org/19037/dna_extraction.html (viewed 25/02/209) http://ncbe.reading.ac.uk/NCBE/PROTOCOLS/PDF/PeaDNA.pdf (viewed 25/02/2009) Boyle, M., Senior, K., (Ed) (2002) Human biology. London: Harper Collins Publishers Class notes and worksheets ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher


    4 star(s)

    Advertisers use words like "crazy" to convey that their prices are unrealistically low and to suggest the consumers can take advantage of them. (eople with mental disorders are, many times, not described accurately or realistically in the media. Movies, television and boohttp://www.cmha.ca/bins/content_page.asp?cid=3)

  2. Chromosomes and DNA

    For instance, cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive allele, so to have the disease a person must have two recessive alleles. Heterozygous people are called 'carriers' because they carry the recessive allele but do not get the disease. Sometimes a mutation causes new characteristics that help the organism to survive.

  1. Free essay

    Cloning Reasearch Paper

    During the human cloning process, a lot of human embryos are created and tested for viability. Some are either discarded or frozen for future use. First, it is heavily debated if killing a human embryo that is only a few living cells is murdering a person.

  2. HSC maintaining a balance notes

    For F2 he expected 3:1 ratio of r:w but all females had red eyes and so did 50% of males. He suggested the gene for eye colour is located on X and there is no corresponding gene on Y; therefore sex-linked.

  1. Investigating the colour variation of Littorina littoralis and their abundance across the upper, middle ...

    Provided a highly accurate display of time. Ranging pole 2 Used to obtain the level of the shore. Simple to use. Had easy identifiable markers in their design to assist with levelling. Clinometer 1 Measures the level of the shore.

  2. Management style, culture & organizational structure.

    restriction fragments) it will anneal (base pair) with any lengths of DNA containing the complementary sequence. These fragments will now be labelled and will stand out from the rest of the DNA. DNA probes have many uses in genetic engineering: * To identify restriction fragments containing a particular gene out of the thousands of restriction fragments formed from a genomic library.

  1. Explain how DNA fingerprinting works.

    Some subtle physical characteristics of the disease include long, narrow face, prominent ears, large forehead, high arched palate, overly flexible joints and flat feet. Some males may also experience loose joints and enlarged testicles as they reach puberty. Young children with fragile X syndrome often have problems and delays in learning how to sit, walk and talk.

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    Genes and Protein Synthesis A genetic code guides the assembly of proteins. The code ensures that each protein is built from the proper sequence of amino acids (see Protein). Genes transmit their protein-building instructions by transcribing a special type of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work