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Effects of exercise on tidal volume and breathing rate

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Introduction

7.2 Effects of exercise on tidal volume and breathing rate Abstract The volume of air breathed in will increase linearly with the increasing work rate as we exercise (up to a submaximal level). The increase in oxygen uptake is a result of increase in tidal volume and respiratory rate. During exercise, body produces carbon dioxide as a result of the demand on cellular respiration. The body?s response to this is to increase tidal volume to accommodate the exhalation of the increased carbon dioxide load. The results that I present here show an increase in the number of breaths per minute as the intensity of the exercise is increased. As the intensity of exercise increases there is a 40% increase in the tidal volume as compared to rest. Introduction During a normal resting state the body the lungs take in on average 5?6 litre min?1 of air but this can dramatically change to a volume of >100 litre min?1 during extreme exercise1. The volume of air breathed in will increase linearly with the increasing work rate as we exercise (up to a submaximal level). The purpose of this physiological response to exercise is to increase the quantity of oxygen delivered to cells for respiration. In the average male the resting oxygen consumption is about 250 ml min?1 and in an endurance athlete oxygen consumption during very high intensity exercise might reach 5000 ml min?1. The increase in oxygen uptake is a result of increase in tidal volume and respiratory rate. Tidal Volume According to Michael G. Levitzky in his "Pulmonary Physiology," tidal volume is the amount of air that enters the lung in a single breath. In a normal healthy adult the tidal volume is approximately 500 ml of air per breath. In order to respond to the chemical and physical demands of exercise the tidal volume of an individual will change to meet the oxygen demand. ...read more.

Middle

When written in mathematical notation the Spearman Rank formula looks like this : Now to put all these values into the formula. 1. d² = 0 multiplying this by 6 gives 0 2. n=4, therefore n3 – n = 43-4 = 64 – 4 = 60 3. R = 1 - (0/60) which gives a value for R: = 1 - 0 = 1 The R value of 1 suggests perfect negative correlation relationship. A further technique is now required to test the significance of the relationship. The R value of 1 must be looked up on the Spearman Rank significance table below as follows: Degrees of freedom = number of pairs -2 = 4-2 = 2 The Spearman Rank test shows that there is a positive correlation between exercise intensity and the rate of respiration. It also suggests that that the null hypothesis can be rejected with 95% confidence. This means that there is a significant difference between the rate of respiration and the level of exercise intensity. Volume of breath/dm3 Mean volume/dm3 Mean volume from both data sets dm3 Breath number 1 2 3 4 5 1st resting 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.56 - 1st Exercise 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.94 - 2nd resting 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.58 0.57 2nd Exercise 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.98 0.96 This graph shows that the volume of air breathed into the lungs is greater at times of exercise compared to that consumed at rest. As you can see from the graph there is little difference between the volumes of breath when comparing the experiments at rest. This can also be said for exercise. If the intensity of the exercise is kept the same the body responds by increasing ventilation to the same rate as shown in the graph. The mean value for both experiments (red) and for individual experiments show that the air consumed during exercise is greater than that consumed at rest. ...read more.

Conclusion

Vital capacity is the amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs after a maximal inspiration. A spirometer can be used to see the changes that occur in the lungs after a period of exercise. The first thing that occurs on the example shown is an increase in the both the rate of respiration and the depth of breathing. These two effects are explained by the increase in carbon dioxide in the blood as a result of raising respiration in the muscle cells. The increase in carbon dioxide in the blood lowers the pH of the blood activation chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid arteries. This activates neurones in the cardiac centre of the medulla to send impulses to the diaphragm and intercostal muscle to increase the rate and depth of breathing. The spirometer can also be used to identify the physiological effects that occur after a period of exercise. As shown in the trace following exercise the tidal volume and rate of respiration decrease until they reach resting values. From concluding exercise to reaching normal resting values a period of 7 seconds elapses. This period of time is due to a phenomenon known as oxygen debt. During exercise the body needs as much energy as possible being delivered to the working muscles. To do this much of the glucose consumed during respiration is converted to lactic acid. The extra oxygen needed following exercise is required to remove the lactate and convert it back to pyruvate. Evaluation Although the results fit with the literature, they are as reliable as they could be. This experiment was only conducted on one individual. To improve the accuracy of the results the number of subjects, age, sex and the number of times that this experiment was carried out. 1. Textbook of work physiology: physiological bases of exercise By Per-Olof Åstran 2. Expiratory Flow Limitation Roger S. Mitchell Lecture Joseph Milic-Emili, MD 10.1378/chest.117.5_suppl_1.219S-a CHEST May 2000 vol. 117 no. 5 suppl 1 219S-223S ________________ UCI 205340050507X Candidate Number 0507 NEC student number SS121598 Page ...read more.

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