• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Effects of exercise on tidal volume and breathing rate

Extracts from this document...


7.2 Effects of exercise on tidal volume and breathing rate Abstract The volume of air breathed in will increase linearly with the increasing work rate as we exercise (up to a submaximal level). The increase in oxygen uptake is a result of increase in tidal volume and respiratory rate. During exercise, body produces carbon dioxide as a result of the demand on cellular respiration. The body?s response to this is to increase tidal volume to accommodate the exhalation of the increased carbon dioxide load. The results that I present here show an increase in the number of breaths per minute as the intensity of the exercise is increased. As the intensity of exercise increases there is a 40% increase in the tidal volume as compared to rest. Introduction During a normal resting state the body the lungs take in on average 5?6 litre min?1 of air but this can dramatically change to a volume of >100 litre min?1 during extreme exercise1. The volume of air breathed in will increase linearly with the increasing work rate as we exercise (up to a submaximal level). The purpose of this physiological response to exercise is to increase the quantity of oxygen delivered to cells for respiration. In the average male the resting oxygen consumption is about 250 ml min?1 and in an endurance athlete oxygen consumption during very high intensity exercise might reach 5000 ml min?1. The increase in oxygen uptake is a result of increase in tidal volume and respiratory rate. Tidal Volume According to Michael G. Levitzky in his "Pulmonary Physiology," tidal volume is the amount of air that enters the lung in a single breath. In a normal healthy adult the tidal volume is approximately 500 ml of air per breath. In order to respond to the chemical and physical demands of exercise the tidal volume of an individual will change to meet the oxygen demand. ...read more.


When written in mathematical notation the Spearman Rank formula looks like this : Now to put all these values into the formula. 1. d² = 0 multiplying this by 6 gives 0 2. n=4, therefore n3 – n = 43-4 = 64 – 4 = 60 3. R = 1 - (0/60) which gives a value for R: = 1 - 0 = 1 The R value of 1 suggests perfect negative correlation relationship. A further technique is now required to test the significance of the relationship. The R value of 1 must be looked up on the Spearman Rank significance table below as follows: Degrees of freedom = number of pairs -2 = 4-2 = 2 The Spearman Rank test shows that there is a positive correlation between exercise intensity and the rate of respiration. It also suggests that that the null hypothesis can be rejected with 95% confidence. This means that there is a significant difference between the rate of respiration and the level of exercise intensity. Volume of breath/dm3 Mean volume/dm3 Mean volume from both data sets dm3 Breath number 1 2 3 4 5 1st resting 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.56 - 1st Exercise 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.94 - 2nd resting 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.58 0.57 2nd Exercise 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.98 0.96 This graph shows that the volume of air breathed into the lungs is greater at times of exercise compared to that consumed at rest. As you can see from the graph there is little difference between the volumes of breath when comparing the experiments at rest. This can also be said for exercise. If the intensity of the exercise is kept the same the body responds by increasing ventilation to the same rate as shown in the graph. The mean value for both experiments (red) and for individual experiments show that the air consumed during exercise is greater than that consumed at rest. ...read more.


Vital capacity is the amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs after a maximal inspiration. A spirometer can be used to see the changes that occur in the lungs after a period of exercise. The first thing that occurs on the example shown is an increase in the both the rate of respiration and the depth of breathing. These two effects are explained by the increase in carbon dioxide in the blood as a result of raising respiration in the muscle cells. The increase in carbon dioxide in the blood lowers the pH of the blood activation chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid arteries. This activates neurones in the cardiac centre of the medulla to send impulses to the diaphragm and intercostal muscle to increase the rate and depth of breathing. The spirometer can also be used to identify the physiological effects that occur after a period of exercise. As shown in the trace following exercise the tidal volume and rate of respiration decrease until they reach resting values. From concluding exercise to reaching normal resting values a period of 7 seconds elapses. This period of time is due to a phenomenon known as oxygen debt. During exercise the body needs as much energy as possible being delivered to the working muscles. To do this much of the glucose consumed during respiration is converted to lactic acid. The extra oxygen needed following exercise is required to remove the lactate and convert it back to pyruvate. Evaluation Although the results fit with the literature, they are as reliable as they could be. This experiment was only conducted on one individual. To improve the accuracy of the results the number of subjects, age, sex and the number of times that this experiment was carried out. 1. Textbook of work physiology: physiological bases of exercise By Per-Olof Åstran 2. Expiratory Flow Limitation Roger S. Mitchell Lecture Joseph Milic-Emili, MD 10.1378/chest.117.5_suppl_1.219S-a CHEST May 2000 vol. 117 no. 5 suppl 1 219S-223S ________________ UCI 205340050507X Candidate Number 0507 NEC student number SS121598 Page ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of nitrate concentration on the growth of Duckweeds

    5 star(s)

    Also this temperature was always kept constant through out the experiment and was controlled as best as possible. This increased the reliability of the results as an increase in temperature of will lead to an increase in the growth as processes such as the Calvin Cycle are enzyme controlled, so

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Fighter Pilot A Statistical Analysis of Reaction time and its Correlation with Dominant ...

    5 star(s)

    10 50 66 59 0.319 0.367 0.347 0.344 11 46 37 38 0.306 0.274 0.278 0.286 12 24 24 17 0.221 0.221 0.186 0.209 13 34 31 26 0.263 0.25 0.23 0.248 14 34 45 37 0.263 0.303 0.274 0.280 15 51 40 37 0.322 0.285 0.274 0.294 16 31

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Measurments of boby temperature, heart rate and breathing rate

    3 star(s)

    I recorded down all of my results. What made these experiments safe While doing all 3 of these experiments the main practical thing that we done was the exercise therefore we had to make sure it was done in a safe way.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Role of the Respiratory and Circulatory Systems in the Provision of Oxygen and ...

    3 star(s)

    It divides into two main branches, the right and left bronchi, which enter the right and left lungs respectively. Bronchi are also supported by cartilage to stop any collapse, however as these bronchi branch into bronchioles, they cease to be supported by cartilaginous material; instead their walls contain smooth muscle.

  1. the effect of bile concentration on the activity of the enzyme lipase during the ...

    Repeat steps 15-26 three times to see if results are precise 28. Repeat steps 15-27 with different concentrations of bile salts solution I believe that by using the following method with the correct apparatus my results will be both precise and accurate.

  2. An investigation into the effects of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration of ...

    At approximately 35 �C and 50�C on the graph, the enzyme activity is very similar. At 35�C, the enzymes and substrates are not colliding at the maximum rate so there are still free active sites for the enzymes reaction to occur.

  1. Field trip report Mangrove ecosystem

    So, mangrove plants need to develop unique reproductive strategies: > The seeds of Aegiceras corniculatum and Kandelia candel germinate inside the fruit without resting stage such that they can obtain water and nutrients from parent plants. Once the viviparous development accomplished, the droppers can develop rapidly to young plants after they were detached and contacted with substrate.

  2. Investigate the effect of bile salt concentration on the digestion of milk by the ...

    When the bile salts and lipase were added the pH dropped and became gradually neutral and then slightly acidic as the lipase was acting to hydrolyse the triglycerides into fatty acid tails (which are acidic) and glycerol molecules. This section of the graph was an exponential decay graph shape.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work