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Enzymes uses in industry and medicine bio cw

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Introduction

The Uses of enzymes in industry and medicine Enzymes are Biological catalysts which allow the chemical reactions of metabolism to take place so therefore controlling the speed of the reaction. They are found in all living cells and are divided into two main groups, intracellular and extra cellular. Intracellular are found and work inside the cells, therefore are secreted inside the cell membrane, from where they control metabolism. Enzymes are complex globular proteins. Their long peptide chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds are wound, folded and bonded into a precise 3D structure, owing their activity to this particular shape. They are compounds of high molecular weight. Enzymes are truly amazing molecules as they are used within industry and medicinal purposes as they are thermostable as they can work at high and low temperatures in contrast to catalysts which can only work at high temperatures as this is very useful for the industrial processes to produce products with less heat so less energy and to make it cost efficient in industrial terms. ...read more.

Middle

Researchers used the enzyme to dissolve natural glue that had surrounded rat brain cells linked to vision. They found the cells could grow new connections, just as they did when the rat was younger. The rats in the test had an eye sealed shut, although they had otherwise perfect vision. When the enzyme was put in to the rats visual cortex's the enzyme digested the sugary proteins and unlocked the nerve cells, allowing them to grow new connections and eventually allow the rats to see again. Tests are now being done on rats with a condition known as "lazy eye". This research may one day lead to medicines that help people recover from brain and spinal cord damage. (6) Enzymes are also very important in products developed for the pre-soaking or spot application on to laundry. In these cases stains are loosened by the enzyme action prior to the main wash in a detergent. ...read more.

Conclusion

E.g. enzymes that should only be in the liver may leek into the blood stream and testing the blood can identify liver damage. Therapeutic enzymes are used in medicines to replace enzyme deficiencies in patients. Also the enzyme protease is used in wound therapy in medicine. They are used to clean up the wound and accelerate the healing process. Enzymes can also be used in drug manufacture where the synthesis of drugs is difficult so enzymes are used to perform the chemical procedure. Enzymes can also be used to aid digestion where they are used to supplement amylase, lipase and protease produced mainly by the pancreas. An example is lactose intolerant people where they require lactose as their bodies are not producing it. From this essay into the uses of enzymes in industry and medicine, I conclude that enzymes are widely used throughout the world in industries but details of enzymes uses in medicine are hard to find as scientists rarely publish details to the public until they are finalised to make sure that these facts are correct. ...read more.

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