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Ethical issues of human cloning

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Introduction

There is ongoing controversy regarding the issue of human cloning in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia which have made attempts or have done research in reproductive cloning. Countries like Australia have prohibited human cloning in 2006. (NHMRC, 2007) Advocates who involve congress members, editorial writers, fertility specialists...and so on gave benefits of human cloning, yet not enough to justify the moral and ethical issues underlying the controversy. Human cloning refers to the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing human or growing cloned tissue from that individual. This essay will illustrate the major ethical concerns associated with human cloning that lead to the conclusion that human cloning should not be encouraged. The greatest moral objection against human cloning lies in the claim that individuals may be unnecessarily harmed, either during experiments or by expectations after birth. Given the immature technology of human cloning, safety issues may arise. Secondly, at the level of human rights, human cloning may violate two fundamental principles which human rights are based on: the principle of equality between individuals and the principle of non-discrimination. ...read more.

Middle

In addition, cloned mammals have died from premature infection and other complications, which are to be expected from human clones as well. A hypothesis is given that cloned humans may need hip replacement surgery even at the stage of adolescence and may suffer senility at the age of 20. (Holm, 2002, 507) Therefore, medical safety issues are a major concern associated with human cloning due to the fact that understanding of reproductive cloning is still rudimentary. Secondly, another ethical concern expressed by representatives from human rights campaign and child welfare organisations regarding human cloning is the interests and rights of human clones. Even if scientists are able to create human clones without incurring the risks mentioned above, much is questioned about the welfare of human clones. As noted by Pattison, the act of human cloning could imply an intention to violate the rights of clones in the future. (2002, 297) It is not necessarily the cloning process itself that violates rights of clones, but the implications of a successful creation of a human clone. They may be created with a certain purpose in the mind of the creator, or carrying pressure and social expectations, thus violating human rights and personal dignity of clones. ...read more.

Conclusion

As a result, it can be said that oppressive expectations burdened on human clones is an ethical issue and reason why human cloning should not be advocated. To conclude, diverse opinions are strongly held regarding the ethnicity of human cloning which include: Safety concerns are expressed regarding human cloning, given there are too many unknowns concerning reproductive cloning of human, attempts to clone human is considered potentially dangerous and ethically irresponsible. Secondly, it is believed that human cloning is unlikely to be delivered in an equitable manner, as they may not be entitled to full rights, with a deeper concern regarding promoting trends of designer babies. Finally the last ethical issue discussed is that parental expectations and constant comparisons could psychologically affect the cloned child. (McConville, 2001, 399) The issue of significant importance is believed to be the fact that the current reproductive cloning technology is unsafe, experiments have shown that cloned animals have a high chance of dying from infections and physical deformities, there is no reason to believe that the outcome of attempted human cloning will be any different. As a result, in order to secure the safety of living things and to curb the abuse of technology, human cloning is encouraged to be banned internationally until the global community including scientists and ethicists find out answers to ethnicity of human cloning. ...read more.

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