• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Ethical issues of human cloning

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

There is ongoing controversy regarding the issue of human cloning in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia which have made attempts or have done research in reproductive cloning. Countries like Australia have prohibited human cloning in 2006. (NHMRC, 2007) Advocates who involve congress members, editorial writers, fertility specialists...and so on gave benefits of human cloning, yet not enough to justify the moral and ethical issues underlying the controversy. Human cloning refers to the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing human or growing cloned tissue from that individual. This essay will illustrate the major ethical concerns associated with human cloning that lead to the conclusion that human cloning should not be encouraged. The greatest moral objection against human cloning lies in the claim that individuals may be unnecessarily harmed, either during experiments or by expectations after birth. Given the immature technology of human cloning, safety issues may arise. Secondly, at the level of human rights, human cloning may violate two fundamental principles which human rights are based on: the principle of equality between individuals and the principle of non-discrimination. ...read more.

Middle

In addition, cloned mammals have died from premature infection and other complications, which are to be expected from human clones as well. A hypothesis is given that cloned humans may need hip replacement surgery even at the stage of adolescence and may suffer senility at the age of 20. (Holm, 2002, 507) Therefore, medical safety issues are a major concern associated with human cloning due to the fact that understanding of reproductive cloning is still rudimentary. Secondly, another ethical concern expressed by representatives from human rights campaign and child welfare organisations regarding human cloning is the interests and rights of human clones. Even if scientists are able to create human clones without incurring the risks mentioned above, much is questioned about the welfare of human clones. As noted by Pattison, the act of human cloning could imply an intention to violate the rights of clones in the future. (2002, 297) It is not necessarily the cloning process itself that violates rights of clones, but the implications of a successful creation of a human clone. They may be created with a certain purpose in the mind of the creator, or carrying pressure and social expectations, thus violating human rights and personal dignity of clones. ...read more.

Conclusion

As a result, it can be said that oppressive expectations burdened on human clones is an ethical issue and reason why human cloning should not be advocated. To conclude, diverse opinions are strongly held regarding the ethnicity of human cloning which include: Safety concerns are expressed regarding human cloning, given there are too many unknowns concerning reproductive cloning of human, attempts to clone human is considered potentially dangerous and ethically irresponsible. Secondly, it is believed that human cloning is unlikely to be delivered in an equitable manner, as they may not be entitled to full rights, with a deeper concern regarding promoting trends of designer babies. Finally the last ethical issue discussed is that parental expectations and constant comparisons could psychologically affect the cloned child. (McConville, 2001, 399) The issue of significant importance is believed to be the fact that the current reproductive cloning technology is unsafe, experiments have shown that cloned animals have a high chance of dying from infections and physical deformities, there is no reason to believe that the outcome of attempted human cloning will be any different. As a result, in order to secure the safety of living things and to curb the abuse of technology, human cloning is encouraged to be banned internationally until the global community including scientists and ethicists find out answers to ethnicity of human cloning. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    This has been explored more fully in the table, but should also be considered in terms of anomalous results. This form of evaluation is presented below. Evaluation of Results: Identification of Experimental Anomalies In order to compensate for possible anomalous results, a series of data has been collected; each from a different source concerning this experimental procedure.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    MENTAL HEALTH

    4 star(s)

    the disorder and it helped to keep her symptoms under control which then meant that if she had her symptoms under control it would then minimize her mood swings and that meant she was able to take more control of her life.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Human Cloning Assignment

    4 star(s)

    This technique for replicates the activation provided by sperm is not completely correct, since only a few electrically activated cells survive long enough to produce an embryo. If the embryo survives, it is allowed to grow for about six days, incubating in a sheep's oviduct.

  2. Peer reviewed

    The cloning of Dolly.

    4 star(s)

    proportion of the embryos thus far produced by nuclear transfer have become live offspring. What are Designer babies? A designer baby is made using the same method as Dolly the sheep; by emptying a human cell of its entire DNA.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Discuss the Moral and Ethical issues of Cloning Animals

    3 star(s)

    cystic fibrosis, diabetes, infertility etc. It benefits the whole human community, and some people would regard the sacrifice of a few animals as a necessary and acceptable act. As most of us eat meat during meals, this is equivalent to killing an animal anyway.

  2. Human Cloning: Should It Be Banned?

    mass murder of Jewish people or maybe if the clone was created in another environment he would have different characteristics. Jonas also argued that "cloning is always a crime against the clone, the crime of depriving the clone of his or her existential right to Gove 4 ignorance" of facts

  1. The Biology of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Social Implications

    Graph from www.nas.org.uk/make_sense. The National Autistic Report can be downloaded in PDF file format from http://autism.org.uk. All information about the report was accessed from the above link on October 21st 2006. Funding Those who made comments about their own experiences suggest that support is not there where it is needed or if the support is there, then where is it?

  2. patterns of growth and development

    It takes a lot of practice before it becomes automatic to be able to do it. The legs of a new born baby need to have time for further growth and development before they are able to walk. Muscles such as the legs, hips and back need to strengthen.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work