• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Genetic Engineering.

Extracts from this document...


TASK THREE Genetic Engineering During cell division the chromatin of the nucleus condenses to form chromosomes. Chromosomes consist of DNA and contain genes. A gene is a portion of DNA that codes for the production of a protein. All genes carried out in the nucleus constitute the genotype. The actual individual that develops the physical appearance is known as the phenotype. There are two related by the equation; Phenotype = genotype + environment DNA In DNA the bases are A,C G and T. DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides joined in the middle. The base A pairs with T and C pairs with G. TRANSRIPTION A special enzyme called RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA molecule at the ''start'' sequence. This causes the strand to unwind. They move along the DNA molecule and nucleotides complementary. The DNA are linked in to form a growing mRNA molecule. At the ''stop'' sequence the enzyme becomes detached and the mRNA molecule passes to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pores. TRANSLATION When the mRNA reaches the cytoplasm the two sub - units of the ribosome attach to it. 2 mRNA codons are exposed and complementary transfer RNA binds in place. They are held until the peptide bond is formed to link the amino acids together. The ribosome moves along the mRNA to the next codon when the process is repeated. ...read more.


If it's necessary, we can kill them by packing the food under vacuum. The others are anaerobic and do not needed oxygen in the environment for their growth. pH: There are germs that prefer acid circles. The majority of the microorganisms don't develop below a pH 4,5. Their optimal pH of growth is 7. In the food industry, one can play on this factor by adding raw materials or additive allowing to reduce the pH of the environment. Water: The more the product is dry, the more its duration of conservation will be long. Genetic Modification Agriculture Genetic Modification can also be known as genetically manipulating foods, in other words the plant has been changed by adding the genes from another plant. This can be an additional gene or many genes. Plants are modified in order to give them immunity from certain predators. Genetic modification can also produce crops. Modifying plant foods is not the only action taken by the food industry. Many animals are injected with hormones to produce more meat. Some examples include: - Cows - treated with hormones to increase their milk production - Salmon - treated to increase their size Agriculture is dependent on microbes to maintain a biological balance of the soil; thus, they are essential for the growth of crops. More than 1,000,000,000 microbes can be found in only 1 gram of soil. Of this number, there may be more than 10,000 different species. ...read more.


Advantages: * Disease could be prevented by detecting people, plants or animals that are genetically prone to certain hereditary diseases and preparing for the inevitable. * Infectious diseases can be treated by implanting genes that code for antiviral proteins specific to each antigen. * Animals and plants can be 'tailor made' to show desirable characteristics. Genes could also be manipulated in trees for example, to absorb more CO2 and reduce the threat of global warming. * Genetic Engineering could increase genetic diversity, and produce more variant alleles, which could also be crossed over and implanted into other species. It is possible to alter the genetics of wheat plants to grow insulin for example. Disadvantages: * Nature is an extremely complex inter-related chain consisting of many species linked in the food chain. Some scientists believe that introducing genetically modified genes may have an irreversible effect with consequences yet unknown. * Genetic engineering borderlines on many moral issues, particularly involving religion, which questions whether man has the right to manipulate the laws and course of nature. Genetic engineering may be one of the greatest breakthroughs in recent history alongside the discovery of the atom and space flight, however, with the above eventualities and facts above in hand, governments have produced legislation to control what sort of experiments are done involving genetic engineering. In the UK there are strict laws prohibiting any experiments involving the cloning of humans. Microbiology Claire McNeill ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    Batty 1 25 3 4 18 J. Eagleton 2 19 14 11 6 E. Scott 3 22 4 6 18 J. Denney 4 24 15 7 4 I. Arshad 5 23 4 5 18 J. Burke 6 23 4 3 20 R.

  2. Peer reviewed

    Brewing. During beer production the sugar in the wort is fermented by ...

    4 star(s)

    When the oxygen is removed metabolism changes to fermentation. Yeast is the only living organism which can change from respiration to fermentation. The production of alcoholic beverages, which has taken place for thousands of years, depends on this fact. During the initial stage of brewery fermentations, the yeast requires a lot of energy, a great deal of oxygen must be supplied to the yeast to initiate this process quickly.

  1. Chromosomes and DNA

    Temperature Temperature can be a limiting factor too. The rate of photosynthesis will be limited if it is too cold for the enzymes to work properlyHormones Have you ever wondered how plants always manage to grow the right way up, even if you sow seeds upside down?

  2. Free essay

    Outline the impact on the evolution of plants and animals of: ...

    Convergent Evolution: evolving to be similar. * Natural Selection over many generations can result in similar adaptations in species that live in similar environments. This process is called convergent evolution. * For example, the seal and the Dolphin both live in the ocean. * They have flippers as limbs, they are strong swimmers, can hold their

  1. Can relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) be prevented?

    Analysis of the results showed that comparisons between immunophenotype, age, risk category (whether at standard or higher risk) and white blood cell count at diagnosis, the present level of residual disease were the single strongest prognostic factors for relapse. Minimal residual leukemia found after initial induction treatment is a very

  2. An Investigation into the effect of flow rate on the size of Gammarus pulex

    The stopwatch was started when the impellor started moving from one point to another. 14) The stop watch was stopped as soon as the impellor reached the other end. 15) The time taken for the impellor to migrate form one end to another was then recorded.

  1. Investigating what effect varying the concentration of copper sulphate has on the enzyme Catalase ...

    So adding even more substrate will have no effect. Another factor affecting the enzyme activity is that of temperature. As you increase the temperature the rate of reaction will increase because it means more kinetic energy so the molecule move faster increasing the chance of collisions between the substrate and enzyme.

  2. the immunity system

    HIV is a member of this group. However the structure of HIV is different from other retroviruses. The HIV virus is around 120nm diameter (120 billionths of a meter). HIV is composed of two exact copy of single stranded RNA protected by the viral protein p24.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work