• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Genetic Engineering.

Extracts from this document...


TASK THREE Genetic Engineering During cell division the chromatin of the nucleus condenses to form chromosomes. Chromosomes consist of DNA and contain genes. A gene is a portion of DNA that codes for the production of a protein. All genes carried out in the nucleus constitute the genotype. The actual individual that develops the physical appearance is known as the phenotype. There are two related by the equation; Phenotype = genotype + environment DNA In DNA the bases are A,C G and T. DNA consists of two strands of nucleotides joined in the middle. The base A pairs with T and C pairs with G. TRANSRIPTION A special enzyme called RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA molecule at the ''start'' sequence. This causes the strand to unwind. They move along the DNA molecule and nucleotides complementary. The DNA are linked in to form a growing mRNA molecule. At the ''stop'' sequence the enzyme becomes detached and the mRNA molecule passes to the cytoplasm through the nuclear pores. TRANSLATION When the mRNA reaches the cytoplasm the two sub - units of the ribosome attach to it. 2 mRNA codons are exposed and complementary transfer RNA binds in place. They are held until the peptide bond is formed to link the amino acids together. The ribosome moves along the mRNA to the next codon when the process is repeated. ...read more.


If it's necessary, we can kill them by packing the food under vacuum. The others are anaerobic and do not needed oxygen in the environment for their growth. pH: There are germs that prefer acid circles. The majority of the microorganisms don't develop below a pH 4,5. Their optimal pH of growth is 7. In the food industry, one can play on this factor by adding raw materials or additive allowing to reduce the pH of the environment. Water: The more the product is dry, the more its duration of conservation will be long. Genetic Modification Agriculture Genetic Modification can also be known as genetically manipulating foods, in other words the plant has been changed by adding the genes from another plant. This can be an additional gene or many genes. Plants are modified in order to give them immunity from certain predators. Genetic modification can also produce crops. Modifying plant foods is not the only action taken by the food industry. Many animals are injected with hormones to produce more meat. Some examples include: - Cows - treated with hormones to increase their milk production - Salmon - treated to increase their size Agriculture is dependent on microbes to maintain a biological balance of the soil; thus, they are essential for the growth of crops. More than 1,000,000,000 microbes can be found in only 1 gram of soil. Of this number, there may be more than 10,000 different species. ...read more.


Advantages: * Disease could be prevented by detecting people, plants or animals that are genetically prone to certain hereditary diseases and preparing for the inevitable. * Infectious diseases can be treated by implanting genes that code for antiviral proteins specific to each antigen. * Animals and plants can be 'tailor made' to show desirable characteristics. Genes could also be manipulated in trees for example, to absorb more CO2 and reduce the threat of global warming. * Genetic Engineering could increase genetic diversity, and produce more variant alleles, which could also be crossed over and implanted into other species. It is possible to alter the genetics of wheat plants to grow insulin for example. Disadvantages: * Nature is an extremely complex inter-related chain consisting of many species linked in the food chain. Some scientists believe that introducing genetically modified genes may have an irreversible effect with consequences yet unknown. * Genetic engineering borderlines on many moral issues, particularly involving religion, which questions whether man has the right to manipulate the laws and course of nature. Genetic engineering may be one of the greatest breakthroughs in recent history alongside the discovery of the atom and space flight, however, with the above eventualities and facts above in hand, governments have produced legislation to control what sort of experiments are done involving genetic engineering. In the UK there are strict laws prohibiting any experiments involving the cloning of humans. Microbiology Claire McNeill ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An Investigation into the Mitotic Nuclear Division of Allium Sativum Root Tip Cells, and ...

    5 star(s)

    It is for this reason that conventional handheld test tube clamps have been provided, to reduce the need of physical contact with the glass. The risk of accident due to physical obstructions in the laboratory. In the event of a sudden or unexpected spillage, or other occurrence, it is of

  2. Chromosomes and DNA

    This chemical is used to catch the light energy needed in photosynthesis. Conditions needed for photosynthesis Photosynthesis changes carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen using the energy from sunlight. Photosynthesis needs: * chlorophyll * carbon dioxide (from the air)

  1. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    has been implicated in Down's syndrome, a serious mental abnormality. Most mutations are considered harmful and are, therefore, eventually eliminated. Some, however, enable an organism to adapt to a changing environment. Biologists believe that mutations have caused the many genetic changes involved in the evolution of species. (See also Evolution.)

  2. What is the relationship between genotype and phenotype?

    the tRNA anticodons, until a 'stop' codon is reached (UAA, UAC, UGA) which terminates the chain. The sequencing of amino acids in the chain constructs the primary structure, which will fold regularly to make the secondary, tertiary and perhaps quaternary structures (where other peptides are involved)

  1. Defense in the blood

    Robison directly attacked a piece of the problem, but failed to see he was intelligently guiding events in a distinctly non-Darwinian scenario. Perhaps we may be allowed to conclude that when three scientists, highly intelligent and strongly motivated to discredit it, all come up empty, that irreducible complexity is indeed a big hurdle for Darwinism.

  2. Free essay

    Cloning Reasearch Paper

    Anyway here is not the question because we are looking for the organ cloning not a human being. Some people also some people want to ban human cloning because they believe this is the only method that homosexuals can have children that will most likely be homosexual too.

  1. the immunity system

    A structure of protein P17 surrounds the capsid protecting the nucleocapsid. Viral protein and enzymes are in the particle such as Vif, Vpr, Nef, P7 and viral protease. An envelope consisting of the host cell is budding of the capsid from host cell.

  2. Genetic Engineering, history and future - Altering the Face of Science.

    Being completely pure, the bioengineered version of factor VIII eliminates any possibility of viral infection. Other uses of genetic engineering include creating disease resistant crops, formulating milk from cows already containing pharmaceutical compounds, generating vaccines, and altering livestock traits (Clarke 1).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work