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Genetic engineering

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Introduction

ESSAY ON GENETIC ENGINEERING The invention of DNA and Mendel's experiment cemented the path of future of genetic engineering (GE). GE is the direct stage management of an organism's genes by technological intervention. Today's applications of GE are the result of many significant developments in the understanding of the science of genetics and development of technology to alter genes. The history of modern GE begins in 1880 with the work of Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics. Through his work with pea plants, Mendel derived the groundwork of modern genetics. He found that characteristics are transmitted in discrete units or genes; the presence of genes in the organism dictates the expression of certain qualities in the organism. Hershey and Chase proved that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), is the genetic material of the cell. In 1953, Watson and Crick discovered the double helical structure of DNA. Later in the 1960's, scientists cracked the genetic code and developed the central creed of genetics: DNA, RNA and protein. In the 1970s, scientists developed the fundamental techniques of GE. In the early 1970s, scientists discovered restriction enzymes. GE involves changing the genetic constitute of an organism. The central precept of GE is the understanding that changing the genes of an organism changes it's physical attributes and it can be used to produce organisms with desired physical attributes through direct genetic intervention. ...read more.

Middle

http://www.med.nus.edu.sg/life_sciences/principle.htm Polymerase chain reaction is another technique by which DNA can be synthesized. PCR is a process based on the ability of a DNA polymerase enzyme that can synthesize a complementary strand to a targeted segment of DNA in a test tube mixture of the four DNA bases. In addition, the mixture must also contain two DNA fragments, each about 20 bases long, called primer. The 20-25 base pair sequence will be unique in the entire human genome. To insert a piece of foreign DNA, the vector is first cut off with the help of restriction enzyme and the foreign DNA pasted by using enzyme ligases. The vector-inserted DNA is now called recombinant DNA. This recombinant DNA has the ability to replicate inside bacteria cells and as the cells reproduce, many more bacteria will be reproducing the same DNA. These DNA are known as "clones", sharing the same parent and have identical sequences. GE has become the part of our life. Their applications are in all the biological fields. It can be applied in medicine, plants, animals, human hormones, etc. It increases the rate of productivity in plants or can increase the resistance power of plants against insects and pests. ...read more.

Conclusion

In agriculture there are many problems of using pesticides instead it is better to use transgenic plants. Many farmers used to die due to toxic effects of pesticides. Even the rivers and streams used to get polluted with the harmful chemicals. Thus transgenic plants eliminate danger. Biotechnology can be used both for good and evil purposes. Using biotechnology new bacteria and viruses can be produced which cannot be treated. But biotechnology can also change our lives. Two trees: American chestnut and the American elm. A fungus then infected the trees. Many of these chestnut trees are still alive as roots, but they never grow to maturity before they grow fungus reinfects. Elm trees are highly susceptible to a different fungus, carried by a beetle. Few elm trees have survived. Scientists have transferred genes into elm trees that should make them immune to the elm fungus. Biotechnology has both side some harmful effects and some good effects. But if people do not misuse it GE can change the whole world. In my opinion people should support GE, which can make true all the imaginary thoughts. It will bring a great revolution and there will be no incurable diseases. People can be provided with good facilities as all the fruits, vegetables etc. would be able to grow all over the world. ...read more.

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