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Homeostasis & Control of BGL.

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Homeostasis & Control of BGL Homeostasis Source - www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/biology/humans/homeostasisrev1.shtml All the cells in our bodies are surrounded by a liquid called tissue fluid which has exactly the right conditions in which cells can work. Tissue fluid has the right temperature, the right amount of glucose and the right amounts of water and salt. Homeostasis is an important process that maintains these conditions at the right level. Source - http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/ASC/HOMEOSTASIS.html A process of interaction which balances various influences and effects so that a stable state or a stable behaviour is maintained. Often that stable state or that stable behaviour is essential to assume structural stability of a SYSTEM. E.g., the size of the pupil of the human eye is negatively correlated with the intensity of light entering the retina thus keeping the amount of light within the limits of optimal processing of visual information. Too much light will destroy the light sensitive cones of the retina. The blood sugar content and many other chemical quantities are similarly balanced within the human body. In families, homeostasis may become pathological when family members no longer prefer that state yet cannot escape it as a consequence of the way they interact with one another (e.g., double bind). Source - http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/HOMEOSTA.html Homeostasis is one of the most remarkable and most typical properties of highly complex open systems. ...read more.


The kidneys, lungs, liver & skin all help to keep the blood composition the same (homeostasis). Control of BGL The endocrine system plays an important part in maintaining the composition of the body fluids A rise in blood sugar after a meal stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. The insulin causes the liver to remove the extra glucose from the blood & store it as glycogen. This helps to keep the concentration of blood sugar within narrow limits The brain monitors the concentration of the blood passing through it. If the concentration is too high, the pituitary gland releases ADH (antidiuretic hormone). When this reaches the kidneys (the target organs) it causes them to reabsorb more water from the blood passing through them. If the blood is too dilute, production of ADH is suppressed & less water is absorbed in the kidneys. Thus ADH helps to maintain the amount of water in the blood at a fairly constant level. Some of the endocrine glands are themselves controlled by hormones. EG. Pituitary hormones such as LH affect the endocrine functions of the ovaries. In some cases, the output of hormones is regulated by a process of negative feedback. The feedback between the pituitary and the ovaries produces fluctuations which cause the menstrual cycle. When the level of oestrogen in the blood rises, it affects the pituitary gland, suppressing it production of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). ...read more.


Source - www.paralumun.com Glucagon is in fact a hormone that is made naturally in the pancreas. It releases stores of glucose from the liver causing blood glucose levels to rise. Insulin, made naturally in the pancreas, lowers blood glucose as it helps the muscles to use glucose as energy. It is these two hormones that keep the blood glucose level stable in people without diabetes Insulin is a protein hormone and is the main factor in controlling a persons blood glucose level. It is produced by the islet cells of the pancreas when food is eaten or if the blood glucose level is high. In between meals the islet cells produce low levels of insulin to maintain the balance between the amount of sugar the liver produces and the use of sugar by the muscles, brain,etc. When food is eaten and the levels of insulin rise it stops the liver releasing sugar into the bloodstream and helps the liver to take up sugar to store as glycogen. Insulin also helps the muscle and fat cells to use glucose. The effects of insulin on the liver and other tissues tend to lower the blood glucose level. Insulin works to help a muscle cell use glucose by creating an opening to allow the glucose to pass into the cell. Insulin also activates proteins (enzymes) in the cell which help the cell either to store glucose as glycogen or use it for energy. ...read more.

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