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Investigation into reducing sugar content of a variety of soft drinks (not diet).

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Introduction

Aim: Investigation into the reducing sugar content of a variety of soft drinks (not diet) Background Knowledge: Reducing sugars: Carbohydrates can be divided into two major groups known as the: * Sugars * Non-sugars The sugars can then be divided down again into: * Simple sugars * Monosaccarides * Disaccharides Reducing Sugars are all Monosaccarides. Monosaccharides contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and their general formula is (CHnO) n. Reducing sugars possess a free aldehyde group and include the sugars glucose, galactose, fructose and lactose (but not sucrose). Under alkaline conditions, this reactive aldehyde can reduce the Cu2+ ion in copper sulphate to the Cu+. Hydrated copper sulphate is blue whereas the insoluble copper oxide formed by reduction in alkali is red. When reducing sugars are heated with Benedict's reagent a red precipitate of copper oxide, which is insoluble, is formed. Ingredients of the soft drinks I plan to use: Orange Fanta: Ingredients: carbonated water, orange juice, sugar, corn syrup, phosphoric acid, artificial flavours Lilt: Ingredients: Carbonated water, sugar, pure pineapple and grapefruit juices (5%), citric acid, colourings Ribena Spark: Ingredients: No artificial colours or flavours. High levels of vitamin C - a measured serving gives you all of the vitamin C allowance that your body needs in a day. ...read more.

Middle

* Dropper pipettes should be used for transferring solutions as irritations could occur if there are spills * Boiling water should be handled with care * Handle beakers and test tubes carefully (risk of broken glass) Method: 1. Weaker concentrations were needed for the test to work correctly. A simple calculation was used to work out the amount of glucose. 1M glucose = (19.8g in 0.1dm�) (198g � 10) x concentration of solution Example: for 0.05M (198 � 10) x 0.05 = 0.99 Concentration of solution (Molar) Glucose (g) Water cm� 0 0 100 0.05 0.99 100 0.1 1.98 100 0.15 2.97 100 0.2 3.96 100 2. 10cm� of each glucose solution was placed into a test tube and combined again with 2cm� of Benedict's reagent. 3. The solutions were then heated and placed in a beaker of boiling water for 8 minutes while they changed colour. 4. The solutions were left to cool for 5 minutes and then placed in the colorimeter (filter 430) 5. The transmissions were recorded 6. A calibration curve could not be produced from the results as the colour as too strong 7. A dilution of the solution by half was prepared so a calibration curve could be produced. ...read more.

Conclusion

There were differences in some of the results and therefore I felt that using a mean average of results would be appropriate. This meant that the points plotted would not be completely accurate. For example the transmission data for the Panda Pops was as follows: * Reasons for anomalies with the results may have been due to inaccurate use of the colorimeter. For example to save time I prepared the solutions in different cuvette. To have made the test more accurate I would have used the same cuvette and washed it appropriately with distilled water each time * The calibration curve I drew up did not reach 1 % transmission; therefore I had to continue my line of best fit across. Thos was not the most accurate thing to do, as I did not have any points to guide me. If I were to do the test again, I would prepare more glucose solutions to make sure that my results would fit on a scale * Initially each soft drink had variances in colour. The Fanta was orange, the Lilt was a shade of yellow and the Ribena was dark purple. While the Panda Pop lemonade was clear. This could have affected results, because they were different colours to start with. For example the panda pops drink had the highest transmission f all the drinks but it had the lightest colour initially. ...read more.

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