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Investigation Into the affect of Temperature on the Rate of Carbon Dioxide Production in Yeast.

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Introduction

Investigation Into the affect of Temperature on the Rate of Carbon Dioxide Production in Yeast Background Knowledge: All organisms respire, and they all produce carbon dioxide, whether it is anaerobic or aerobic respiration. For yeast, respiration is as follows: Aerobic: C6H12O6 + 6O2--> 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP Anearobic: C6H12O6 --> 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH For respiration to occur, there must be a source of food for the organism. In this case, glucose solution was used. The yeast then creates enzymes, which break the glucose up and act as catalysts for respiration. Therefore, the temperature should affect the rate of carbon dioxide because with the increase of heat energy, there is more energy for reactions. However, after a certain temperature, the enzymes will be denatured, and will no longer break down the glucose so no respiration will take place. Although this project will look at the carbon dioxide production in yeast, it can also be used to look at the affect of temperature on enzymes, which is how the results can be explained. Prediction: I predict that temperature will affect the rate of carbon dioxide production, by affecting rate of respiration in yeast. I predict that the graph of CO2 volume against time will look like this: Denaturation point Optimum temperature Volume (cm3) Therefore, the rate of CO2 production should double every 10oC, and after the denaturation point it should drop very rapidly to zero. ...read more.

Middle

The method I have decided to use will give accurate results and be a fair test because the temperature will be controlled accurately, and no CO2 gas will be able to escape the system. As well as this, there will be enough glucose for the yeast to respire, so there will not be a shortage of food for them. The investigation will be reliable because all of the important factors, which may affect the CO2 production rate, have been accounted for, and are being kept constant so that they do not skew the results. Safety precautions: As with any experiment in the laboratory, certain safety precautions must be taken: Glassware is fragile, and may break. This might cut somebody and therefore, must be treated with care, whether unbroken or broken. The Bunsen Burner is dangerous because it burns gas and can burn people. Since gas is quite dangerous, care must be taken to not accidentally remove the Burner from the gas mains with it still on. The water will also be heated to a high temperature, and can burn hands severely since it will be close to boiling point. Obtaining Evidence: Results: Experiment 1: Experiment 2: Temp (oC) Volume of CO2 Produced in 5 minutes (cm3) Rate of CO2 Production (cm3/5) Volume of CO2 Produced in 5 minutes (cm3) Rate of CO2 Production (cm3/5) 35 1 0.2 0.75 0.15 45 2.5 0.5 2.5 0.5 55 6 1.2 6.25 1.25 65 6.25 1.25 6.5 1.3 75 1.5 0.3 1.25 0.25 85 0.25 0.05 0.25 0.05 N.B. ...read more.

Conclusion

As above, the results seem to be reliable because there are no anomalous ones, and all obey my prediction. The accuracy of temperature was plus or minus 1oC, and the volume was accurate to the nearest quarter of 1cm3. The method was suitable for this investigation because it safely and accurately found out the affect of the temperature on the rate of respiration of yeast. However, the procedure could have been better if a thermostatically controlled water bath was used, a thermometer was in the mixture of yeast and glucose solution, and if a digital manometer was used. The first would make sure that there was no temperature deviation. The second would show the real temperature at which the enzymes are working at. The third, would allow the accurate and precise collection of data for CO2 volume and it would take readings at different stages of each 5 minute period for each temperature. It could also send the data straight to a computer with software to work out the nature of the curve and certain key pieces of data. It could also be used to work out the optimum temperature more accurately. Conclusions: Therefore, since there are no anomalous results it is possible to make some firm conclusions about the affect of temperature on the rate of respiration of yeast: a) The optimum temperature was around 60 to 61oC. b) The majority of yeast cells had denatured at 75oC. c) On average, the rate increases by 100%, or doubles, with every extra 10oC. d) The rate of respiration falls very rapidly after the optimum temperature. ...read more.

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