• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Plan an investigation to find out if there is a relationship between the concentration of phosphate ions in nutrient solutions and the number of cells dividing by mitosis in root tips

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Investigation to find out if there is a relationship between the concentration of phosphate ions in nutrient solutions and the number of cells dividing by mitosis in root tips. Mitosis is the nuclear division of a cell producing two genetically identical daughter nuclei, each containing the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. Mitosis is a continuous cycle but has been divided into four stages; prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase. Phosphate is important for all organisms; it is essential for growth and development and has several roles; * Nucleotides - DNA, RNA & ATP are nucleic acids; phosphate groups are vital to their structure. It combines with the sugar forming a sugar-phosphate backbone, which holds the molecule and covalently bonds different nucleotides to one another. DNA & RNA have one phosphate group and ATP has three. ATP is used by cells to carry out 'work, therefore is considered as 'energy currency' and is needed during the actual process of mitosis. * DNA replication - two extra phosphate groups are added to nucleotides for activation, allowing them to pair up with complementary bases on the 'old' DNA strands (semi-conservative replication). ...read more.

Middle

* Lack of phosphate means protein synthesis won't occur or will be inefficient, vital enzymes needed during mitosis can't be made and mitosis will not take place. PRELIMINARY " Preparation & observation of the stages of mitosis in root tips." From this experiment I learnt how to prepare a squash slide to view under a microscope. I understood the consequences of adding too much acetic orcein (stained chromosomes too deeply.) I heated the hydrochloric acid by warming over a flame; I developed this for my method, as it was not an accurate technique. The temperature couldn't be controlled and therefore could disrupt my results so I plan on using a water bath at a set temperature and a thermometer to ensure the temperature was maintained. APPARATUS * Garlic clove - roots * Microscope - view specimen under magnification * Nutrient solution - required for growth * Phosphate tablets - vary concentrations * Acetic orcein - stain chromosomes making them visible * Slides & coverslips - prepare specimen for viewing * Scalpel - cut root * Watch glass - hold specimen * Filter paper -mop excess liquids * HCL (2.0 mol dm3) ...read more.

Conclusion

JUSTIFICATION * All other variables were kept constant and only phosphate level was varied, to understand the effects of the different concentrations on mitosis. This ensured that a fair test was carried out and that unbias and reliable results was recorded. * Several ranges of phosphate concentration used, to easily note the effect on mitosis. On one solution there was no phosphate tablet used, this was the control of the experiment, and enabled me to understand what happened in the absence of phosphate. Solution 10 was used to understand the effects of excessive phosphate on mitosis. * Volumetric flasks used to accurately ensure that volume of phosphate solutions was the same for all concentrations, ensuring accurate results. * Hydrochloric acid was used to break down calcium pectate of middle lamella allowing cells to spread out. * Acetic orcein stained the chromosomes making them visible under the microscope. * Roots were macerated to spread out. * Water was removed to prevent a precipitate forming when stained. SAFETY * Do not point scalpel at face or others. * Acetic orecin and hydrochloric acid are corrosive, use carefully. * Don't drop test tubes, glass may break of hot water splash. * Wear laboratory jacket to protect clothing. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. An experiment to find of the isotonic point of root vegetables cells in contents ...

    * 1 molar sucrose solution- This solution will be used to make the other solutions for this experiment via a method known as dilution. I will add water to the 1 molar sucrose solution to dilute it and obtain various other concentrations.

  2. To find out how different concentrations of sucrose solution affect the incipient plasmolysis of ...

    0.3M (0.3) 6ml (0.7) 14ml 0.4M (0.4) 8ml (0.6) 12ml 0.5M (0.5) 10ml (0.5) 10ml 0.6M (0.6) 12ml (0.4) 8ml 0.7M (0.7) 14ml (0.3) 6ml Method 1) Collect all the required equipment and make sure it has been cleaned thoroughly using distilled water as it maybe contaminated from previous use.

  1. Investigation into the varies stages of mitosis

    Lab furniture and accessories Stools and bags etc. cause hazard of tripping over them especially dangerous if carrying equipment. Hazard of long hair and loose articles of clothing setting alight by catching Bunsen flame accidentally. Coats removed along with bags placed along one side of the lab not blocking any

  2. Catalyse Investigation

    pH 7 buffer was selected to match the natural pH of the potato tissue and therefore suit the enzyme so that it could work efficiently. One of the boiling tubes was then connected to a manometer containing manometer fluid using a bung (see diagram below).

  1. Amylase Investigation

    Check the temperature accurately using a thermometer. 2. Label two test tubes A and B. 3. Using a syringe place 1cm3 of amylase solution into test tube A. 4. Using a separate syringe, place 5cm3 of 5% starch solution in test tube B.

  2. Mitosis In Onion Root Tips - Cell Cycle

    Notice that the epidermal layer is a thin transparent layer, which covers the leave. 4) Place the thin tissue on the clean slide. Cut a (2x3mm) portion of the epidermal with a sharp scalpel. Avoid any folding to the epidermal layer.

  1. An Investigation Into the Stages of Mitosis

    The two centrioles replicate just before the start of prophase. The chromosomes become more visible as they stain intensely. They coil up, becoming shorter and thicker. Nearer the end of prophase the centrioles begin to move to opposite poles of the nucleus.

  2. The effect of phosphate on cell division in root tips

    If I examine a range of squashed plant tips, each of which have been cultured in a solution that have different phosphate concentrations, it is possible that I can determine a pattern and I will then be able to conclude what effect a lack, or an excess, of phosphates has on the mitotic cycle.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work