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Rates of Reaction

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Introduction

Rate of Reaction Experiment Introduction: 8C conducted an experiment to investigate the four factors which affect rates of reaction (temperature, concentration, surface area and the addition of a catalyst.) In this case, we examined the impact concentration has on the rate of reaction. We combined three samples of one type of mixture, but of varying concentrations of the solvent. Unfortunately, due to some human error we were unable to complete the experiment but have detected various indicators which supported our hypothesis. Our observations were recorded in a table intended for what would have been our quantitative data. AIM: To investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction HYPOTHESIS: I hypothesize that the rate of reaction would be accelerated by a greater concentration of solutes. When more solute has been added, there are more particles in the same volume to react with one another, as demonstrated in the adjacent diagram. NOTE: A chemical reaction involves the collision between particles. The particles collide to generate a new substance(s). Fewer particles mean less chance of collision. Independent Variable (x): the concentration of one reactant (in this case, the hydrochloric acid.) Dependent Variable (y): the rate of reaction (i.e. the time it takes for the chemical process to be complete.) Controlled Variables: * The volume of the other reactant (in this case, the calcium bicarbonate) ...read more.

Middle

30 30 31 Volume (ml) 20 20 20 Analysis: Although, due to some human error, we were unable to complete the experiment and obtain our objective results, various observations made during the process make it possible for us to make an analysis and draw some conclusions in regards to either the confirmation or contradiction of our hypothesis. Our observations, however, seem to support our hypothesis. There were various indicators as to the rate of reaction of each specimen (in comparisons to one another.) They are listed as follows: * According to our observations the velocity/mobility of the bubbles (presumably originating from the calcium bicarbonate) was highest in Specimen C, followed by Specimens B and A respectively. This indicates that there was the most energy or activity in Specimen C, probably as a result of the added particles (from the greater concentration) available for collision. (Additionally, the height of foam produced instants after the two substances were combined was in this respective order: Specimen C, B and A.) * Most apparent to us, probably, was the auditory differences between the three specimens. Specimen C, predictably was loudest, followed by Specimens B and A respectively. This almost designates that there was the most occurrence in Specimen C, therefore generating relatively a lot of noise. ...read more.

Conclusion

This, of course, possessed less surface area than the powdered kind, which caused all three specimens to require a long period of time for the completion of the chemical process. * Therefore, we were unfortunately unable to complete the experiment as we were not permitted to go overtime. * This led to our failure in obtaining quantitative data. We therefore had to make do with qualitative data and various indicators we were able to observe during the experiment, such as the mobility of the bubbles created from each specimen. (It may be noteworthy to add that this also prevented us from being able to construct a graph.) * (We also extracted for each specimen 2.0 grams of calcium, whilst a mere 0.5 gram would have been more suitable.) * We were not extremely precise in our measurement of the hydrochloric acid. Instead of the intended 20 ml we sometimes poured 19 or 21 ml. * The stop watch was started approximately 2 - 3 seconds after the two chemicals had been combined. Further Work: * We could investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction. * We could investigate the effect of surface area on the rate of reaction. * We could investigate the effect of a catalyst (such as amylase, pepsin) on the rate of reaction. * We could investigate major factors which decrease the rate of reaction. * We could examine the properties of various substances and make judgments concerning their rate of reaction from that. ...read more.

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