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# Solenoid Investigation

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations

PHYSICS A (2823/03/PLAN)

Practical Test (Part A - Planning Exercise)

Research/Theory

“The moment of a (turning) force about a given pivot is defined as follows.

Moment of a force = force x perpendicular distance from the pivot to the line of action of the force. The unit of moment is the Newton metre (Nm).”1

Also, “The principle of moments states that for any body in equilibrium, the sum of the clockwise moments about any pivot must equal the sum of the anticlockwise moments about that pivot.”1(Fig. 1)

“Inside a solenoid, the magnetic field is uniform and its strength can be increased by increasing the current.”2

## The principle of moments is used to find attractive force between the magnet and the solenoid.

The unknown force is the one produced with the bar magnet and solenoid. By using the equation of equilibrium previously given, the unknown force can be calculated provided that the system is in equilibrium:

F1 x d1 = F2 x d2

F1 = (F2 x d2)

Middle

#### Preliminary Investigation

The first aspect that was investigated was the direction of the current (Fig.5). It must be noted that “There is an attractive force”.

The magnitude of the current that will be used through the solenoid was then investigated. When the resistance of the variable resistor was at its smallest the current through the solenoid was 3.42A with a 2V supply (a 2V supply was found adequate as higher e.m.f. was found to trip the power supply). However, at this current flow, it was found that the solenoid would heat up very quickly and to a high temperature. By adjusting the variable resistor to a higher resistance it was found that when set so the current on the ammeter was 0.5A, the solenoid did not heat too much or heat too quickly therefore the resistance of the solenoid would not be affected greatly.

The only meter used was an ammeter. It is

Conclusion

x, to 0cm.Turn the power supply on. Set the variable resistor so the current reading on the ammeter reads 0.5ABalance the system by adding 10gram masses/plastacine to the other end. Check this equilibrium by very lightly resting the spirit level on top Metre rule 1, as shown in the Fig. 4.Turn the power supply off and remove the mass. Measure the mass on scales and take down the reading.Repeat steps 2) to 5) twice.Repeat steps 2) to 6) for the following values of x: 2cm, 4cm, 6cm, 8cm, 10cm and 12cm. This will provide enough readings for an accurate graph to be drawn.

#### Results Table

• F2 can be calculated by m x 9.81 = F2.
• F1 can be calculated by (F2 x d2) / d1 = F1.

 Distance, x/ m Mass, m/ grams Force, F2/ Newtons Force, F1/ Newtons 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

 Distance, x/ m Mass, m/ grams Force, F2/ Newtons Force, F1/ Newtons 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

 Distance, x/ m Mass, m/ grams Force, F2/ Newtons Force, F1/ Newtons 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

Average

 Distance, x/ m Mass, m/ grams Force, F2/ Newtons Force, F1/ Newtons 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12

#### Bibliography

1. New Understanding Physics For Advanced Level by Jim Breithaupt (Stanley Thornes).
2. Physics 1 by David Sang, Keith Gibbs & Robert Hutchings (Cambridge OCR).

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