#### Mass on a spring - and investigation into resonance

An Experiment to Investigate a Mass on a spring as an Example of Resonance Method We set up the apparatus as shown below. We also included a meter rule to the left of the spring so that we could see the size of the oscillations. We set the signal generator to produce a sine wave output and set both the frequency and amplitude to a minimum. We switched on the signal generator and set the amplitude to its middle setting. We pulled down gently on the load and allowed the spring to oscillate. We slowly increased the frequency, monitoring the amplitude of the oscillations of the load by reading from the meter rule placed next to the apparatus. We noted when the amplitude appeared to be at its largest and took this frequency to be the resonant frequency. We repeated the experiment using different masses and decided to repeat each experiment 3 times for comparison. Measurements Before commencing the experiment, we considered what precautions we could take to ensure accuracy. We placed a meter rule by the apparatus to give us the best possible chance of observing the largest amplitude correctly. We weighed the entire spring system (Weights, hanger and spring as all of these items were involved in the actual oscillation that we were measuring) each time we changed the mass of the system to ensure and accurate reading for mass. We felt that just adding weights and assuming

• Word count: 1264
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Measuring the acceleration due to gravity in the lab.

Measuring the acceleration due to gravity in the lab Aim Our aim was to find the acceleration due to gravity in the laboratory. Method The distance between the ceiling and the floor (h) was measured. A rubber was then dropped from the ceiling and the time taken for it to hit the ground was recorded. Results Attempt Time Taken (sec) 0.47 2 0.45 3 0.71 4 0.55 5 0.5 6 0.71 7 0.4 8 0.46 9 0.58 0 0.56 Average Time = Sum of all times Number of Times = (0.47+0.45+0.71+0.55+0.5+0.71+0.4+0.46+0.58+0.56) 10 = 5.85 10 = 0.59 sec (to 2 dp) H = height of the drop T = time taken Acceleration due to gravity = 2H T2 =2(2.59) 0.592 = 5.18 0.3481 = 14.88 m/s2 (to 2 dp) Evaluation The results circled in the table are anomalous. There was a wide range of results, from 0.4 to 0.71. This spread of results indicates that the data may be inaccurate. Although the experiment was repeated nine times, different results were found at nearly every attempt. This could be due to the timing methods used. A stop clock held by a person was used to measure the time the rubber took to hit the ground. As a human's reaction times are not perfect, the button could have been pressed long after the rubber had touched the ground. Also, the timekeeper could have pressed the button too early; at the time he expected the rubber to fall in order to try and get a more

• Word count: 589
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Given a Batch of Factory Springs, Estimate the Average Spring Constant and Uncertainty of the Batch.

GIVEN A BATCH OF FACTORY SPRINGS, ESTIMATE THE AVERAGE SPRING CONSTANT AND UNCERTAINTY OF THE BATCH. Outline plan I have been given 3 springs to which I will add different weight. Using the value of extension (?x) I will calculate the spring constant. Hooke's Law says that the stretch of a spring from its rest position is linearly proportional to the applied force (stress is proportional to strain). Symbolically, F = k?x Where F stands for the applied force, x is the amount of stretch (found by new length minus original length), and k is a constant that depends on the "stiffness" of the spring, called the spring constant. Trial plan Set up equipment as above. Measure original length of spring. Add weights 0.5N at a time until spring reaches elastic limit. Record extension (?x). Plot these results on a graph and use this information to gain a sensible number and range of values to use in full experiment. Safety Notes Be sure to keep your feet out of the area in which the masses will fall if the spring breaks Be sure to clamp the stand to the lab table, or weight it with several books so that the mass does not pull it off the table. You need to hang enough mass to the end of the spring to get a measurable stretch, but too much force will permanently damage the spring, as it will have exceeded its elastic limit. Wear safety glasses to protect eyes if spring suddenly

• Word count: 1896
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Catapult Investigation

Mark Cranshaw 0P/11P Physics coursework Catapult Investigation Planning: * Preliminary work The preliminary part of my catapult investigation was to see how far I could stretch an elastic band without breaking and also to test to see what readings I could use in the final experiment. I am going to plan an experiment where I shall investigate the firing distances of 100g weights fired by two elastic bands wrapped around a stool. First of all we did our preliminary experiment. In this we investigated elastic bands to see which would be most suitable to use in our final experiment. We tested the elastic bands with different forces (1-10 Newton's) and recorded the distances of which they were stretched. I realised that if I stretched the elastic bands with more than a force of 10 Newton's then they would probably break or loose their elastic energy. Here is a diagram showing our trial experiment: The results of this experiment are shown on the graph on the next page and also below: Force (Newton's) Distance stretched (cm) 24 2 29 3 36 4 44 5 54 6 64 7 73 8 80 9 86 0 90 1 05 2 09 3 20 4 23 5 25 From the results it is quite easy to see that the bigger the force on the elastic band the further it will stretch. From this I will make a prediction: "The more force put on the elastic band the further the weight will travel the further the elastic

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• Word count: 2646
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Of all of the early scientists of the scientific revolution I am most impressed by Sir Isaac Newton.

Of all of the early scientists of the scientific revolution I am most impressed by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton is important because he contributed more to the development of science than any other person in history. Isaac Newton is remembered as the greatest scientific genius who ever lived. His discoveries about physics, light, and mathematics changed the world. I am even more impressed by what he overcame to reach his goals. He came to surpass even his own expectations. I am more impressed with the man than with the discoveries. So many people in history are viewed as larger than life, which can be dehumanizing. Newton was very much a human with very human emotions. Isaac Newton came from a family of farmers. His father dies three months before he was born. Isaac's father was a wealthy landowner but was uneducated and could not even sign his own name. Isaac did not lead a privileged life; he was basically treated like an orphan. Isaac had a very unhappy childhood. Isaac is only ten when his grandfather, James, dies and James left him nothing in his will. There is also no doubt that Isaac felt very bitter towards his mother and stepfather. When he was reflecting on his sins at age 19 he wrote: "Threatening my father and mother to burn them and the house over them." Upon the death of his stepfather, Isaac lived with his extended family including his mother, grandmother,

• Word count: 1026
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Investigating the depression of a ruler when force is applied.

Investigating the depression of a ruler when force is applied Investigation: Measuring the depression of a ruler when force is acted upon it and when the length of overhang is altered. Planning First of all it was important before starting anything that the environment where the experiment was taking place was a safe one and that I was not in any danger whilst doing my investigation. I will make sure that the desk is clear with only the required apparatus present and also make sure that no more weight than 6N is put on the ruler otherwise it might snap and a splinter could come up into my eye. There are three independent variables in this experiment. These are the over-hang of the ruler, the mass added to the ruler and where the mass is positioned on the ruler. I will be investigating two of these independent variables, which are the alteration in overhang and the mass added to the end of the ruler. These will then produce a Dependant variable. This is the amount the ruler bends. For this experiment I will set up a one-meter ruler lying horizontally off the side of the work desk with a block of wood on top of it and a G Clamp holding it in place so it does not move. I will then add individual weights of 1 Newton to a piece of string hanging on the end of the overhanging ruler. I will measure the distance that the ruler has bent by using another ruler lying vertically

• Word count: 2580
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### physics investigation- stopping distance

Physics Investigation Introduction In my investigation I intend to gather enough evidence and explanation to see if and how the mass of a ball will affect its stopping distance. I will carry out a series of tests starting with changing the mass of the ball then changing height which it's dropped from. Predictions I predict that the mass of a ball will most defiantly affect the distance it takes to stop because as the mass increases, the amount of friction with the surface will increase which will slow down the ball sooner. I believe if the mass of the ball is doubled the friction with the surface it's on will double and therefore half the distance taken to stop. Equipment For my investigation the equipment I will require is: * A ramp and stand ( 1 metre long) * Carpet (2 by 0.5 metres) * 2 balls of different masses but same size ( ball 1, 2.8g and ball 2, 44.9g) * 2 metre rules My setup My setup is pretty simple I will use a ramp with a rule along it and some carpet for the balls to roll along I will then use another rule to measure the distance taken to stop. When I first set up my equipment the balls where rolling around everywhere, to overcome this problem I decided to curl the carpet into a half bowl shape the balls then rolled smoothly down the ramp and along the carpet. Procedure Firstly I will drop the lighter ball 1, and measure its stopping distance

• Word count: 1474
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### To determine the acceleration of gravity in a free fall experiment.

ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY AIM To determine the acceleration of gravity in a free fall experiment. DIAGRAM METHOD * The experiment is carried out using the apparatus, as set up above. * The switch is used to open and close one circuit at a time. * The distance for the ball to fall is measured between the ball and the trapdoor with a ruler; a set square is used to see where the ball coincides with the ruler, making it a more accurate measurement. * Adjusting the height of the trapdoor can change the distance. * When circuit A is closed the power supply travels to the electromagnet, which magnetises the ball. * The timer is set to zero. * As the switch is moved, braking circuit A and closing circuit B, the power supply is cut off to the electromagnet and the ball falls. The power supply now travels to the timer and timing commences. The two actions happen simultaneously. * When the ball falls through the trapdoor the circuit is broken and timing stops as there is no power supply. * The time shown on the timer represents how long it took for the ball to reach the trapdoor. * The experiment is repeated several times at different heights, with 2 readings for each height. * Results are put into a table showing the distance, times, an average time and a time. RESULTS Distance/m Time/s Time/s Av.Time/s Time/s 0.55 0.318 0.323 0.3205 0.103 0.521 0.320

• Word count: 1104
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Science 1 Investigating thedeflection of a cantilever.

Science 1 Investigating the deflection of a cantilever. Plan In my experiment, I am investigating the deflection of a cantilever. Before we start our experiment, we have to gather the necessary equipment and apparatus together in order to start and complete our experiment. We will need the following:- * 1m ruler (x2). * 2x G- clamps. * One piece of string. * Masking tape and sticky tape. * 2 blocks of wood. * And finally 1k in 100g weights (100x10). Here is a diagram of our experiment. The meaning of deflection is the movement of a structure or a part of a structure when it is bearing a load. Once we have collected all the equipment needed to carry out the experiment, we need to first put it together and set it up. We do this by taking one of the 1m rulers and clamping it onto the end of the desk with a G- clamp. We also put some wood in-between the ruler and G- clamp, the reason for this is because we don't want the ruler and table being indented by the clamp. We found out that this could be the best thing to vary. The reasons for this is because we could choose whether to have the ruler further away from the desk and have it bend more or have it closer in to the desk and make it less bendy. Once we had done that, then we took another 1m ruler and taped it onto a retort stand. Then, finally we took one piece of ordinary string and tied it onto the 1m ruler

• Word count: 1146
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### The police force - history.

Question One The police force was invented in the nineteenth century. There were just two forces in Britain, in 1800; one was the Bow Street Runners, the other, the Thames River police force. Before the Metropolitan Police Force was set up in 1829, the streets of Britain were patrolled by watchmen and parish constables. There were also Special Constables, who could not deal with problems, such as riots (Which were common in Britain.). The Metropolitan Police Force (Or 'Met') was set up by Sir Robert Peel. These officers were a mixture of the watchmen and special constables, their duties were to patrol the streets and settle disturbances, such as riots. Sometimes, the 'Met' helped the army. There was confusion between the two forces. The British people did not like seeing the 'redcoat' uniform of the army, and so the uniform of the Metropolitan Police Force were given a new uniform. It was blue with a top hat, tail-coat, and few badges and decorations, also armed with a truncheon. These changes were made so that they would not be confused with the army. There were problems when setting up this force. Many of the recruits for the Metropolitan Police Force were dismissed, on counts of drunkenness. Also, the public did not like these officers. This was mainly because of crown control, and the way that the 'Met' handled it (Mostly by the baton charge, which resulted in the

• Word count: 840
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science