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The dna structure and function compared to the rna.

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COMMERCIAL USES OF ENZYMES Micro-encapsulation involves the enzyme being attached to an inert particle, like a resin bead. The beads are then packed into a vertical tube, which the substrate can then be poured down. Particular industries, which use this, are in the production of clear juices and glucose isomerase. The fruits in juices almost always contain pectins, which hold the fruit cells together. Due to this, juice can often appear cloudy, but pectinase is often added to fruit juice (apple juice) to make it appear clear. There are many disadvantages to leaving pectinase in the apple juice. For example, some people may be allergic to that particular enzyme; it is expensive to purify and extract the enzymes and it's also very time consuming. In addition the enzyme is wasted and cannot be used again. Consequently, the technique of enzyme immobilisation is used. The pectinase is embedded into resin beads, which are then packed into the vertical tube. The juice is then poured through and the clear juice is collected as the end product, thus leaving the pectinase still attached to the resin beads ready to be reused. ...read more.


The yeast converts sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. However, these sugars are stored as starch in plants; consequently this meant the process of malting had to be undertaken. This process was relatively expensive and hard to control; therefore industrial enzymes such as amylases, glucanases and protease's were introduced to catalyse the malting process and make it easier to control. Thus producing the required sugars for the yeast to react on. In addition enzymes aid the filtration process, because of the polysaccharides; xylans and glucans present in the final beer. This often results in slow filtration. Consequently xylanases and glucanases are added to break down the polysaccharides, therefore increasing the filtration rates. Marx refuted hypothesis. Many enzymes are applied in the baking industry. The wheat flour used in bread making naturally contains enzymes that modify the starch, protein and fibre fraction of the flour when water is added to the flour to make dough. In addition the yeast accommodates enzymes, which ferment maltose, which in turn produces carbon dioxide, making the bread rise. Enzymes such as xylanase, a-amylase, protease, glucose oxidase and lipase are used for various reasons, such as controlling the taste, volume of the loaf, crumb texture and staling properties. ...read more.


Isolated enzymes have analytical uses like measuring the amount of glucose in the urine of diabetics. Bacterial lactase produces lactose free milk, which is used by people eho cannot produce lactase. In the production of fruit juice hemicellulases and cellulases break down fruit cell wallsand this increases the amount of juice from the fruit. Citric acid is used in jam production and is produced by a mutant stain of the fungus Aspergillus niger, which makes the enzyme citrate synthase. Fungal ligninases are used in pulp and paper industries to remove lignin from wood pulp and treat wood waste. In soft centred chocolates, invertase from yeast breaks down the solid filling to produce the soft centre. Enzymes are used in a variety of industries, for example to enhance flavour and as additives in brewing and detergents. They provide many advantages for different industrial processes. They have also benefited industries in terms of cost, with the introduction of techniques such as enzyme immobilisation. Enzymes have been widely used in the food industries making them more competitive and they have helped in medicine and pharmaceuticals. Consequently, enzymes will be used further in the future as technology progresses. In addition they are a vital part of a number of diverse industrial processes. By Jegan Kanagalingam ...read more.

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