• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

the rate of reaction of amylase as measured by the breakdown of starch into glucose

Extracts from this document...


The effect of PH on the rate of reaction of amylase as measured by the breakdown of starch into glucose Brief: A company plan to manufacture soft centred chocolates. These are made by using amylase to break down starch after they have been coated with chocolate. The manufacturer wants to find out if e needs to control the PH of his ingredients for the process to be successful Introduction: Starch is the substrate that will be used. Starch is a polysaccharide carbohydrate, which consists of large numbers of glucose, which is a monosaccharide carbohydrate. These glucose molecules are joined together by glycosidic bonds. Starch is a storage polymer of plants. There are two types of starch found, amylopectin and Amylose. Amylopectin is a branching polymer of ?-glucose, this makes it compact. Amylose is a polymer of ?-glucose which forms a compact helical chain which makes it a well suited storage carbohydrate. Starch is insoluble, it cannot moves out of cells in which they are stored in and also has no osmotic effect. The test to detect if there if any starch is present is by adding iodine to the solution and the solution will go blue/black if there is iodine present, but for a negative test the solution will stay yellow/brown. ...read more.


in a complete loss of enzyme activity as the ionic and hydrogen bonds that stabalise the enzymes tertiary structure will be broken. The enzyme will lose its shape and the active site will be altered. The substrate can no longer bind with the enzyme to form an enzyme- substrate complex. The PH will need to be around the optimum temperature of the enzyme which is usually PH7. Concentration: If the substrate concentration is increased the rate of reaction will increase as there will be an increase in collisions which will result in an increase in enzyme- substrate complexes. As you carry on increasing the concentration of the substrate the rate of reaction reaches a maximum and no longer increases as the enzyme concentration becomes a limiting factor. If the enzyme concentration is increased the rate of reaction will also increase, this is because substrate concentration is rarely a limiting factor. The optimum temperature for amylase is 400c and the optimum PH is 7 Apparatus: * Pasteur glass pipette * Stop clock * Stirrer * Thermostatically controlled water bath * Boiling tubes * Well Method: * Set a thermostatically controlled water bath at 40oc * Using a Pasteur glass pipette, pipette 4cm3 of starch of a standard concentration (0.1cm3) ...read more.


* The concentration of starch and amylase would need to be the same in each replication, because if the concentration is high in one replication the rate of reaction will increase, and if it was low the rate of reaction will decrease. * Boiled amylase will be used as a control to ensure that amylase is breaking the starch down into glucose * The type of starch needs to be the same because the amylopectin may be easier to hydrolyse than the Amylose, as the amylopectin has a bigger surface area. * The solution will need to be stirred to make sure that the enzyme is not at the top and the substrate at the bottom, because the enzymes will not collide with the substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex, therefore the rate of reaction will decrease. * Iodine will be added to the solution to show the decrease in starch, because the end point will be when the solution stays brown, this will indicate that there is no starch in the solution. * The iodine will need to be standardised because a colour change might not be detected, therefore will not know if there is starch present, the end point will cause anomalies. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    in one agar plate (the enzyme will not react so far as that one concentration will take up one agar plate). This means a fairly small number of agar plates will be need to conduct the experiment, let alone do two repeats of the experiment.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    effect of concentration of copper sulphate on the action of amylase to break down ...

    4 star(s)

    Complete and obtain the whole set of results in the shortest time possible, I did it in about 4 hours. Random Concentration of starch solution (5% concentrated) Different concentration of starch solution will affect the rate of reaction. Make the concentration of starch solution as precise as possible.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Investigating the effect of temperature on the breakdown of starch by amylase.

    showing exponential decay so that, after every x minutes, the starch concentration would half and would therefore never be totally broken down. However, the results did clearly show that the starch concentration decreased with time for all temperatures except when the enzyme denatured.

  2. The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Reaction with Amylase

    Care must be taken when handling the iodine, as it is toxic and corrosive. A clean pipette should be used to transport the iodine from the beaker to the test tube. There are no ethics to take into consideration, as there are no animals being used in this experiment.

  1. 'Investigating how temperature affects the rate action of the amylase enzyme on starch.'

    * 4.) My next step will be to prepare the site for testing i.e. the spotting tile. I will be adding one drop of iodine solution to each of 12 hollows in the spotting tile. (I must make sure this one drop is to equal proportion throughout, for the purposes of fair testing)

  2. Enzymes - investigate the affect of amylase concentration on starch breakdown into glucose.

    This is because some the enzymes have been de-natured. As the reaction proceeds, the level of substrate would fall as it is converted into product by the enzyme. As the rate of reaction is also dependent on the concentration of substrate, this too would 'fall and has nothing to do with the effect of temperature.

  1. Theeffects of amylase concentration on the breakdown of starch

    If too much heat is applied and the enzyme molecules gain too much kinetic energy, the intermolecular bonding is tampered with and bonds are destroyed. This directly affects the shape of the active site, and as the enzyme is completely dependant on its specific shape, it renders the enzyme ineffective and is therefore denatured.

  2. Investigating the Rate of Reaction of the Enzyme Amylase on starch

    This procedure is much better than observing the intensity of colour by eye, as it is more accurate and gives a numerical value. - Water Bath I have decided to use a water bath as oppose to a Bunsen burner, as there is a smaller fluctuation of temperature.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work