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the rate of reaction of amylase as measured by the breakdown of starch into glucose

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Introduction

The effect of PH on the rate of reaction of amylase as measured by the breakdown of starch into glucose Brief: A company plan to manufacture soft centred chocolates. These are made by using amylase to break down starch after they have been coated with chocolate. The manufacturer wants to find out if e needs to control the PH of his ingredients for the process to be successful Introduction: Starch is the substrate that will be used. Starch is a polysaccharide carbohydrate, which consists of large numbers of glucose, which is a monosaccharide carbohydrate. These glucose molecules are joined together by glycosidic bonds. Starch is a storage polymer of plants. There are two types of starch found, amylopectin and Amylose. Amylopectin is a branching polymer of ?-glucose, this makes it compact. Amylose is a polymer of ?-glucose which forms a compact helical chain which makes it a well suited storage carbohydrate. Starch is insoluble, it cannot moves out of cells in which they are stored in and also has no osmotic effect. The test to detect if there if any starch is present is by adding iodine to the solution and the solution will go blue/black if there is iodine present, but for a negative test the solution will stay yellow/brown. ...read more.

Middle

in a complete loss of enzyme activity as the ionic and hydrogen bonds that stabalise the enzymes tertiary structure will be broken. The enzyme will lose its shape and the active site will be altered. The substrate can no longer bind with the enzyme to form an enzyme- substrate complex. The PH will need to be around the optimum temperature of the enzyme which is usually PH7. Concentration: If the substrate concentration is increased the rate of reaction will increase as there will be an increase in collisions which will result in an increase in enzyme- substrate complexes. As you carry on increasing the concentration of the substrate the rate of reaction reaches a maximum and no longer increases as the enzyme concentration becomes a limiting factor. If the enzyme concentration is increased the rate of reaction will also increase, this is because substrate concentration is rarely a limiting factor. The optimum temperature for amylase is 400c and the optimum PH is 7 Apparatus: * Pasteur glass pipette * Stop clock * Stirrer * Thermostatically controlled water bath * Boiling tubes * Well Method: * Set a thermostatically controlled water bath at 40oc * Using a Pasteur glass pipette, pipette 4cm3 of starch of a standard concentration (0.1cm3) ...read more.

Conclusion

* The concentration of starch and amylase would need to be the same in each replication, because if the concentration is high in one replication the rate of reaction will increase, and if it was low the rate of reaction will decrease. * Boiled amylase will be used as a control to ensure that amylase is breaking the starch down into glucose * The type of starch needs to be the same because the amylopectin may be easier to hydrolyse than the Amylose, as the amylopectin has a bigger surface area. * The solution will need to be stirred to make sure that the enzyme is not at the top and the substrate at the bottom, because the enzymes will not collide with the substrate to form an enzyme-substrate complex, therefore the rate of reaction will decrease. * Iodine will be added to the solution to show the decrease in starch, because the end point will be when the solution stays brown, this will indicate that there is no starch in the solution. * The iodine will need to be standardised because a colour change might not be detected, therefore will not know if there is starch present, the end point will cause anomalies. ...read more.

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