• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Vaccination and the components of the immune system

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Components of the immune system. -Describe how the body prevents microorganisms from entering the body In the human body, the primary line of defence is the skin. The skin stops most of the microbes from entering the interiors of the body. If however, the pathogen is able to gain access into the body, the lymphatic system comes into play. The pathogen is eliminated before it begins to cause any more trouble. -Describe how phagocytic cells destroy pathogens Phagocytosis is a form of Endocytosis. In phagocytosis, the cell engulfs the bacteria and keeps it in a bubble like structure called a phagosome. From there the cell injects lysosomes into the phagosome. ...read more.

Middle

Some enter along with our food, while others get in via the nose. And, as we all know, many things can break through our skin. In everyday life we often receive cuts or scrapes, and every time this happens we face the risk of a full-scale invasion from bacteria or viruses. -Vaccinations How do they work? Vaccines help a body's immune system prepare in advance to fight infectious illnesses and potentially deadly diseases caused by infectious agents or their by-products. Essentially, vaccines give the body a preview of a bacterium, virus, or toxin allowing it to learn how to defend itself against that potential invader in advance. ...read more.

Conclusion

When this happens, the B cell starts to divide to produce clones of itself. During this process, two new cell types are created, plasma cells and B memory cells. -Suggest why booster vaccinations are given. They're a de-activated or weakened version of the virus or bacteria like most vaccinations but at a lower dose. They just allow the body to build more anti-bodies to defend against the infection and prevent disease. They may also be used to help the body produce anti-bodies for mutations of the given virus or bacteria which could infect a person who has been vaccinated against their other form. Your body can develop anti-bodies and store them away so that once the virus is introduced to your body the antibodies will be able to "take down" the virus quickly and effectively. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Phagocytosis and the Immune Response

    of 50 000 to 60 000 relative molecular mass. * Two identical light chains of amino acids (L) of 23 000 relative molecular mass. In each antibody, there are constant regions where the amino acid sequence is the same of very similar and variable regions where the amino acid sequence varies and is unique to different molecules.

  2. The Specific Immune System

    the part of the major histocompatibility complex bearing an antigen fragment. How T Lymphocytes Recognise Antigens: T lymphocytes (Human Biology Book, pages 136-138) are part of the immune surveillance system. They help identify antigens, which are substances foreign to the body.

  1. The Immune system.

    They are also able to mobilize quickly. They develop inside the thymus gland and they react to the remains of the destroyed antigens attacking them as well as any infected cells. The Lymphatic Role Within The Immunity The lymphatic system has a role within the immunity via the lymphatic tissues which consist of capillaries, vessels and nodes.

  2. Blood and The Immune System.

    It may be attacked by phagocytes or by preformed antibodies that act together with the complement system. The human immune system contains approximately 1 trillion T cells and 1 trillion B cells, located in the lymphoid organs and in the blood, plus approximately 10 billion antigen-presenting cells located in the lymphoid organs.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work