• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Your guide to diabetes.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The body maintains an optimum concentration of glucose in the blood (blood sugar) to supply cells with enough glucose for respiration. Two hormones control departures from normal blood sugar concentrations, insulin and glucagons, by a negative feedback mechanism. Negative feedback is a control mechanism where movement away from the normal value of something produces a response that returns it to its normal value. These two hormones are released from the pancreas, which is located behind the liver, shown in the diagram below. The two hormones Insulin- hormone that is produced in the islets of langerhans (groups of cells in the pancreas). The secretion of glucose is stimulated by the rise in blood glucose concentration which follows a meal. the hormone has a number of effects on the body, all of which tend to lead to a reduction in the concentration of glucose in the blood- two of these effects are 1. Insulin speeds up the rate at which glucose is taken into cells from the blood. Glucose normally enters cells by facilitated diffusion through carrier protein molecules in the plasma membrane. ...read more.

Middle

Insulin works on the cells of our body and makes them take in glucose from the bloodstream. Some of the glucose is used by the cells for energy (by respiration), and some is converted into glycogen or fat which are stores of energy. However when the levels of glucose in the blood begin to fall then level of insulin falls. Some glycogen or fat is then converted back into glucose which is released from the cells into the bloodstream. Understanding the 2 types of diabetes Type 1 diabetes The facts Usually diagnosed in childhood The body makes little or no insulin Daily injections of insulin are required to sustain life Without proper daily management, medical emergencies can arise. Occurs when the insulin producing cells are destroyed by the bodies own Type immune system. Is also referred to as insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus or juvenile onset diabetes. Can occur at any age, however usually starts in people younger than 30 What is happening? The beta cells of the pancreas produce little or no insulin, this prevents glucose from entering the body cells. ...read more.

Conclusion

This is known as "self testing" Regular testing can tell you how well you are dieting, exercising to control diabetes. The results can be used to adjust meals, activity or medication to keep blood sugar levels at an appropriate level. Diet and weight control is also an important aspect to consider when treating diabetes. Meal planning can include:- choosing healthy foods, eating the right amount of food eating meals at the right time. If you are suffering from diabetes, when you cannot achieve normal blood glucose levels with diet and exercise medication is also added to the treatment plan. Your doctor will start you on oral medicines such as; Oral sulfonylureas - trigger the pancreas to secrete more insulin. Biguanides stimulate the liver to decrease its production of glucose, which increases glucose levels in the blood stream. Meglitinides trigger the pancreas to make more insulin in response to how much glucose is in the blood. Advice- Visit a diabetes care provider every three months. Everyone should have their blood glucose checked at least every three months. Regular testing of random blood glucose should begin at a younger age and be performed more often if you are at particular risk for diabetes. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Exchange, Transport & Reproduction essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Biology coursework planning - the effect of lead chloride on the growth of cress ...

    5 star(s)

    Label a petri dish 0.000moldm-3 and write the date that the cress seeds are planted. 3. Place a cotton pad into the petri dish. 4. Measure 15ml of the distilled water from the beaker using a 20ml syringe and pour it into a test tube, held in a test tube rack.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Human Reproductive System

    4 star(s)

    Refer to temperature in the answer. The scrotum acts as a temperature regulator and keeps the testis, where the sperm is produced, at a slightly lower temperature one or two degree below the body temperature. The lower temperature is ideal for sperm production and higher temperatures may be damaging to sperm count.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    What is Type 1 diabetes

    3 star(s)

    studies are currently underway to investigate the cause, treatment and prevention of the disease. Possible complications Arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), can also lead to stroke and other heart conditions. Diabetic kidney disease. Diabetic retinopathy (diabetes-related eye disease). Diabetic neuropathy (degradation of the nerves), leading to foot ulceration and infection.

  2. Peer reviewed

    "An investigation into the Respiration of Carbohydrate Substrates by Yeast."

    5 star(s)

    This means the probability that these results are due to chance is more than 0.1 or 10%, therefore less than 90% due to the manipulation of the independent variable, and are considered not significant. Sucrose baker's v Sucrose brewer's. t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances Variable 1 Variable 2 Mean 93.25641

  1. Rate of Respiration

    alone is inaccurate and inadequate for me to establish whether there is any significant difference between the type of substrate and volume of c02 evolved. Hence I will conduct the Students T test in to compare two sets of data and to calculate whether there is any significant differences between the two sets of data.

  2. The Endocrine System

    The hypothalamus sends hormones down the stalk to the pituitary via two different systems, with different results: a. Hormones are sent to the anterior pituitary (the front-most part) via a portal blood supply (one that runs between organs instead of back to the heart).

  1. Homeostasis and Feedback

    It does this by utilising Poiseuille's law. This means that if, for example, the core body temperature rises by too much the blood vessels will dilate to allow more blood to flow to the surface of the body in order for the excess heat to escape. The volume of blood in the vessels near the surface of

  2. Blood System Assignemnt

    The heart is a muscular cone-shaped organ about the size of a clenched fist of the same person. It is located in the upper body (chest area) between the lungs, and with its pointed end (called the apex) downwards, forwards, and pointing towards the left.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work