• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Official Crime Statistics Analysis

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Official Crime Statistics Answer Introduction Crime: an action that the state has identified as harming the interests of the community and has taken steps to punish the perpetrator of such acts Deviance: is a relative concept, culturally determined according to the norms and values of the prevalent society. What Official Crime Statistics are? > Number of recorded crimes reported to the police over the period of a year in the United Kingdom. > Perpetrators of crime are likely to be male, between the ages of 16-25 and come from both a disadvantaged background and or ethnic minority. > OCS contributes to social policy makers by indicating areas of high crime and likely victims. Evaluation (+) Functionalists and Sub-Cultural theorists: view official crime statistics as "Social facts". Methodological synoptic link: using positivist or scientific methodology results will be objective, view OCS give an accurate reflection of social life. Data is reliable and able to be verified by sociologists using the same methodology. International and domestic comparisons: similar to Durkheim's study of Suicide; a relationship between two factors (Multivariate Analysis) can be identified. Coleman and Moynihan (1996): validity of statistics characteristics of offenders is corroborated by most alternative secondary data sources. Evaluation of OCS: (-) Political bias: Government pressure on the policeforce "reduce" crime and manipulates figures i.e. ...read more.

Middle

In relation to ethnicity: Racist Police? British Crime Survey 1992: most crime is Intra-racial. Lord Scarman (1981) inquiry inner city "riots" the police force is a reflection of society therefore some racist individuals may join. Reiner (1992) "Canteen Culture": police developed a distinct set of working class values rooted in "Masculinity" which means a view of racial and gender stereotypes of potential offenders. This helps with the pressures of work and gives them a sense of belonging and identity. Scraton & Gorden (1988): ethnic minorities breaking laws is rooted in anti-colonial struggles therefore crime is a political not criminal act. Social Exclusion? Bourgois (1995) "El Barrio": study of "ghetto" populated by Puerto Ricans, illegal Mexicans and African Americans. Social exclusion from mainstream society and negative social attitudes led to the development of an "Alternative Economy". The activities varied from street robbery, prostitution to serious cocaine dealing similar to Cloward & Ohlin's "Illegitimate Structure". "Street culture of resistance" developed to express the "Internalised Rage" felt through rebellious practice of going against mainstream norms and values. Davis "City of Quartz" police segregate the poor into ghettos solely on ethnic minorities and working class. Feeley & Simon: changing dynamic of social control with the emphasis away from the "deviant" and focused more on the potential deviant. In relation to gender: Why are women under-represented in OCS? ...read more.

Conclusion

Aubert: sub-culture is influential as World war rationing gave preferential treatment of members of the same group Braithwaite: in the Pharmaceutical industry the bribing of he#alth inspectors was "Standard practice" Corporate Crime Conklin (1977): working class crimes such as Larceny, burglary and auto-theft to be $3-4billion a year compared with $40billion for white-collar crime i.e. consumer fraud, anti-competitive practices. * 1980's US stock market crash where a financial deficit of $1trillion was covered by a government "loan". Carson (1970): Piper Alpha oilrig explosion in the North Sea costing 168 lives the company was cleared of any liability. * Exxon Valdez disaster (1989) in which an oil tanker leaked many tons of oil desecrating local wildlife populations and affecting the livelihoods of many fishermen and due to a "legal" loophole there has been a non-payment of $5billion. * Microsoft has been prosecuted and fined $380 million by the European Commission for anti-competitive practices. Occupational Crime Ditton & Mars (1980): employee theft to be viewed as a legitimate "perk/fiddle" Clarke (1990): management turnt a blind eye to "fiddling" considering it part of remuneration. Levi (1987): investigated financial institution fraud and found 75% being committed by employees with employers reluctant to prosecute fearing negative publicity. * January 2004 Lord Conrad Black was found to have "looted" $300 million in false expenses and is under pressure to sell his share in Hollinger Inc owner of the Daily Telegraph. Box (1983): multinationals dump products deemed "unsafe" in modern industrial countries onto developing countries, which is not illegal. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the Usefulness of Official Crime Statistics to a Sociological Understanding of Crime

    4 star(s)

    This victimization of ethnic minorities through police discrimination and racism is an important element in the assessment of official statistics. This can be seen from figures issued by the Home Office in June 2000 where there was an over representation of ethnic minorities in prisons in Britain and where 19%

  2. Sociological Theories on Crime and Deviance

    While it may explain some utilitarian crime it may not explain violent crime. Its view that criminals are rational actors freely choosing crime conflicts with its view that their behaviour is determined by their biology and socialisation. It also over emphasises biological factors, for example Lilly et al (2002)

  1. Crime: Social construction or reality?

    Women may feel they are treated unfairly by society i.e. low pay so may engage in crime through exploitation. Males may want to conform to the aggressive, masculine roles and engage in violence. Women may also try to compete with the male roles which is why they may also commit

  2. Examine the reasons why some sociologists choose to use official statistics when conducting their ...

    By contrast, interpretivists such as Maxwell Atkinson (1971) regard official statistics as lacking validity. They argue that statistics are not real tings or 'social facts' that exist within the world. Instead, statistics are socially constructed - they merely represent the labels some people give to the behaviour of others.

  1. Outline the view that white-collar and corporate crime are under-represented in criminal statistics.

    These crimes are difficult to detect and when they are detected, they are rarely prosecuted. Corporate crime has a lower rate of detection, prosecution and more lenient punishments.

  2. How Accurate are Official Crime Statistics?

    The implication of this fact is that an increase in recorded crime, may not depict an accurate increase in the number of crimes occurring, however one must ask, if official crime statistics are not a true representation of crime levels, what is?

  1. An analysis of The Daily Mail.

    The aim of this was to compare the percentage of space given to different types of crime with that of BCS figures and see whether the newspapers over represented violent crime as opposed to property crime. From the analysis it was found that the average total percentage coverage of all

  2. Assess the right realist view that crime is the result of biological rational factors ...

    immersion in the American Dream: a culture hooked on Gucci, BMW and Nikes'. However opportunities to achieve these goals legitimately are blocked, so they resort to street crime instead. So utilitarian crimes such as robbery would cause these subcultures to gain an advantage on people in their own subculture by stealing some clothes that the less deprived can afford.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work