• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Research into the distribution of income by sex, region, ethnicity and occupation in the UK Labour Market; Explain why these differences occur?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Research into the distribution of income by sex, region, ethnicity and occupation in the UK Labour Market; Explain why these differences occur? The distribution of income in the UK, although in some instances illegal, seems to correspond with different groups of the UK labour force divided by sex, region, ethnicity and occupation. For years the government have tried to remove these barriers to create a fairer income distributed labour market, but still inequality exists. In this essay I shall look into how much the income of these groups differ from others and why exactly these differences occur? Differences in income depending on gender receives the most attention by the UK press. Despite the government efforts of bringing in various acts to stop gender discrimination, it appears that the difference in pay still very much exists. In some extreme cases, women doing exactly the same job as men receive less pay. This was made illegal by the Equal Pay Act 1970 which makes it unlawful for employers to discriminate between men and women in terms of their pay and conditions where they are doing the same or similar work. Today the difference in income is mainly caused by the fact that men are being given the higher role jobs in companies, such as manager and director positions, leading to higher income. So in order to solve the question of 'Why these differences exist?' ...read more.

Middle

, Scotland- �10.11, Wales- �9.64 and Northern Ireland- �9.55 The main reason why these regional differences occur is due to demand and supply. In London there is an extremely high demand for workers. Most of the UK companies' headquarters and foreign offices based in the UK are in the City of London. The generated demand from these firms is massive for skilled and qualified workers who earn much more than low skilled workers, such as those working in retail for example. The lower skilled occupations, such as retail, also have to pay higher wages than they would have to if they were located outside of London, as people in London have much higher living costs than the rest of the UK. High living costs include high housing prices, rent, transport and other services. Regions, whose inhabitants earn relatively low income, usually have very few large firms and hardly any MNC's and TNC's. This results in supply (i.e. the labour force) outweighing the demand from the regions firms. Thus leading to a high amount of people willing to work for lower wages, or otherwise face unemployment. Many of the regions, who now face low income rates, are that of mining pasts, when mining came to a halt the average income in the mining regions dropped dramatically, simply due to no work. Another factor which affects the income in regions is the size of the population living there. ...read more.

Conclusion

* Another factor which affects how much an occupation pays, is the employee's marginal revenue productivity. The theory is that workers wages are paid the value of their marginal revenue product to the firm i.e. the change in total revenue for a firm as a result of selling the output produced by an extra worker. This could be used to explain why a software designer, who earns a lot of money for his/her company, is paid more than a bar worker, who earns much less for his/her employer. In conclusion, the amount of income an employee receives is mainly down to their occupation which I believe is fair. I also find it fair that people who are living in certain areas, such as London, receive more income than other regions as their difference in wages have to make up for the huge differences in living costs. The UK government have tried their best to make these the only reasons why some are paid more than others, but there is still some inequality and discrimination in the work place which has not yet been removed, despite the various Acts brought in. In the near future I believe that these inequalities will eventually fade out, but today the UK is still very much in the transition of becoming a fair labour market, and so unfortunately gender and race discrimination will affect some potential employees for the time being at least. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification essays

  1. Poverty and Discrimination

    This is in light of the fact that western capitalist societies are based on profit margins and their populations then compete for the best social resources. Differing social groups jockey for control, causing tension and frustration, as institutionalised racism sets in.

  2. Identify current patterns of ill health and inequality in the UK. Explain probable ...

    Tooth decay shows directly poor dental hygiene, but also indirectly poor children's health and diet. The link between diet and nutrition to health and inequalities in health is, based on the fact that higher rates of nutritional related diseases are more common in disadvantaged groups.

  1. Is the Underachievement of Ethnic Minority Children due to a Racist School System?

    This corresponds with the study done by Wright (1992) that found that teachers often expressed disapproval of Asian children's customs and traditions, and that they were largely excluded from classroom activities because the teacher assumed they had a poor command of English.

  2. Assess the causes and consequences of changes in the UK population

    * The number of immigrants in the UK has increased and they tend to have larger families. * Many women are remaining childless, with the majority of it voluntary. Consequences of these changes affected things like the family, the dependency ratio, and public services and policies.

  1. Differences between sex and gender

    One kind of gender socialization identified by Oakley was canalization, whereby on the foundations of sex, children are given different toys by their parents which focus the child's interests in certain 'appropriate' objects and activities. For instance, boys are given toy cars, trains and planes which are linked to active and technical connotations.

  2. The issue of two interwoven entities - personal identity and ethnicity

    In my survey, I mostly included the questions for which the answers would serve me as inferential indicators of the traits of personal identities and beliefs concerning the students' views on ethnic diversity. Especially, in order to find out what kind of ethnic ideology the surveyed students stood for, I

  1. Does Multi-Culturalism depend on Removing Ideas of Ethnicity from the Concept of Nation, and ...

    In place of the preoccupation with homogeneity that characterises dominant models of the nation state, including the liberal ideal of civic nationalism, Taylor and Carens suggest a different model of 'liberal democratic citizenship that seek to recognise multiple forms of belonging to the political community and overlapping identities and citizenships.'

  2. Race or religion? The impact of religion on the employment and earnings of Britain's ...

    All Muslims and male Sikhs display significantly lower propensities for employment, whereas Christian males demonstrate higher propensities for employment, relative to those who are not religious. This further demonstrates the importance of religion. For both males and females, being Muslim implies the biggest employment penalty.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work