• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Research into the distribution of income by sex, region, ethnicity and occupation in the UK Labour Market; Explain why these differences occur?

Extracts from this document...


Research into the distribution of income by sex, region, ethnicity and occupation in the UK Labour Market; Explain why these differences occur? The distribution of income in the UK, although in some instances illegal, seems to correspond with different groups of the UK labour force divided by sex, region, ethnicity and occupation. For years the government have tried to remove these barriers to create a fairer income distributed labour market, but still inequality exists. In this essay I shall look into how much the income of these groups differ from others and why exactly these differences occur? Differences in income depending on gender receives the most attention by the UK press. Despite the government efforts of bringing in various acts to stop gender discrimination, it appears that the difference in pay still very much exists. In some extreme cases, women doing exactly the same job as men receive less pay. This was made illegal by the Equal Pay Act 1970 which makes it unlawful for employers to discriminate between men and women in terms of their pay and conditions where they are doing the same or similar work. Today the difference in income is mainly caused by the fact that men are being given the higher role jobs in companies, such as manager and director positions, leading to higher income. So in order to solve the question of 'Why these differences exist?' ...read more.


, Scotland- �10.11, Wales- �9.64 and Northern Ireland- �9.55 The main reason why these regional differences occur is due to demand and supply. In London there is an extremely high demand for workers. Most of the UK companies' headquarters and foreign offices based in the UK are in the City of London. The generated demand from these firms is massive for skilled and qualified workers who earn much more than low skilled workers, such as those working in retail for example. The lower skilled occupations, such as retail, also have to pay higher wages than they would have to if they were located outside of London, as people in London have much higher living costs than the rest of the UK. High living costs include high housing prices, rent, transport and other services. Regions, whose inhabitants earn relatively low income, usually have very few large firms and hardly any MNC's and TNC's. This results in supply (i.e. the labour force) outweighing the demand from the regions firms. Thus leading to a high amount of people willing to work for lower wages, or otherwise face unemployment. Many of the regions, who now face low income rates, are that of mining pasts, when mining came to a halt the average income in the mining regions dropped dramatically, simply due to no work. Another factor which affects the income in regions is the size of the population living there. ...read more.


* Another factor which affects how much an occupation pays, is the employee's marginal revenue productivity. The theory is that workers wages are paid the value of their marginal revenue product to the firm i.e. the change in total revenue for a firm as a result of selling the output produced by an extra worker. This could be used to explain why a software designer, who earns a lot of money for his/her company, is paid more than a bar worker, who earns much less for his/her employer. In conclusion, the amount of income an employee receives is mainly down to their occupation which I believe is fair. I also find it fair that people who are living in certain areas, such as London, receive more income than other regions as their difference in wages have to make up for the huge differences in living costs. The UK government have tried their best to make these the only reasons why some are paid more than others, but there is still some inequality and discrimination in the work place which has not yet been removed, despite the various Acts brought in. In the near future I believe that these inequalities will eventually fade out, but today the UK is still very much in the transition of becoming a fair labour market, and so unfortunately gender and race discrimination will affect some potential employees for the time being at least. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification essays

  1. Identify current patterns of ill health and inequality in the UK. Explain probable ...

    Tooth decay shows directly poor dental hygiene, but also indirectly poor children's health and diet. The link between diet and nutrition to health and inequalities in health is, based on the fact that higher rates of nutritional related diseases are more common in disadvantaged groups.

  2. Differences between sex and gender

    Whereas, girls are more likely to be given dolls, teddy bears, prams and miniature, toy ovens which stimulate a rehearsal of female traditional roles such as cooking. A further type of gender socialisation Oakley has identified is verbal appellation. This refers to the content and style of language used by parents, which provides a further process of differentiation.

  1. Is the Underachievement of Ethnic Minority Children due to a Racist School System?

    This corresponds with the study done by Wright (1992) that found that teachers often expressed disapproval of Asian children's customs and traditions, and that they were largely excluded from classroom activities because the teacher assumed they had a poor command of English.

  2. Assess the causes and consequences of changes in the UK population

    Recent statistics have also shown that women are giving birth later on in their lives with the highest fertility rate in the age group 30 to 40 and the number of children born to woman aged 40 and over has doubled in the last 20 years.

  1. The issue of two interwoven entities - personal identity and ethnicity

    At the same time, I assume by definition that the information about the national origins of the students indicates their ethnicity and hence their place on the ethnic stratification ladder. Identity vs. ethnic ideologies As stated above I will examine interplay between identity and ethnicity by making use of the empirical data gathered in the survey.

  2. Race or religion? The impact of religion on the employment and earnings of Britain's ...

    the respective predicted average of the employment probabilities of group NM and group M. (21) [bar]P([[alpha].sup.M][X.sup.M]) is the average across the sample of the predicted probabilities using group M coefficients and group M characteristics and similarly for the other terms.

  1. How do issues of inequality inform analyses of women(TM)s position in the labour market?

    According to Equal Opportunity Commission, in 1999, almost two thirds of all full time employees were male. One of the reasons of this is that women sometimes find it hard to balance work and childcare and get discriminated because they need the time off.

  2. Poverty and Discrimination

    This is in light of the fact that western capitalist societies are based on profit margins and their populations then compete for the best social resources. Differing social groups jockey for control, causing tension and frustration, as institutionalised racism sets in.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work