• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Research into the distribution of income by sex, region, ethnicity and occupation in the UK Labour Market; Explain why these differences occur?

Extracts from this document...


Research into the distribution of income by sex, region, ethnicity and occupation in the UK Labour Market; Explain why these differences occur? The distribution of income in the UK, although in some instances illegal, seems to correspond with different groups of the UK labour force divided by sex, region, ethnicity and occupation. For years the government have tried to remove these barriers to create a fairer income distributed labour market, but still inequality exists. In this essay I shall look into how much the income of these groups differ from others and why exactly these differences occur? Differences in income depending on gender receives the most attention by the UK press. Despite the government efforts of bringing in various acts to stop gender discrimination, it appears that the difference in pay still very much exists. In some extreme cases, women doing exactly the same job as men receive less pay. This was made illegal by the Equal Pay Act 1970 which makes it unlawful for employers to discriminate between men and women in terms of their pay and conditions where they are doing the same or similar work. Today the difference in income is mainly caused by the fact that men are being given the higher role jobs in companies, such as manager and director positions, leading to higher income. So in order to solve the question of 'Why these differences exist?' ...read more.


, Scotland- �10.11, Wales- �9.64 and Northern Ireland- �9.55 The main reason why these regional differences occur is due to demand and supply. In London there is an extremely high demand for workers. Most of the UK companies' headquarters and foreign offices based in the UK are in the City of London. The generated demand from these firms is massive for skilled and qualified workers who earn much more than low skilled workers, such as those working in retail for example. The lower skilled occupations, such as retail, also have to pay higher wages than they would have to if they were located outside of London, as people in London have much higher living costs than the rest of the UK. High living costs include high housing prices, rent, transport and other services. Regions, whose inhabitants earn relatively low income, usually have very few large firms and hardly any MNC's and TNC's. This results in supply (i.e. the labour force) outweighing the demand from the regions firms. Thus leading to a high amount of people willing to work for lower wages, or otherwise face unemployment. Many of the regions, who now face low income rates, are that of mining pasts, when mining came to a halt the average income in the mining regions dropped dramatically, simply due to no work. Another factor which affects the income in regions is the size of the population living there. ...read more.


* Another factor which affects how much an occupation pays, is the employee's marginal revenue productivity. The theory is that workers wages are paid the value of their marginal revenue product to the firm i.e. the change in total revenue for a firm as a result of selling the output produced by an extra worker. This could be used to explain why a software designer, who earns a lot of money for his/her company, is paid more than a bar worker, who earns much less for his/her employer. In conclusion, the amount of income an employee receives is mainly down to their occupation which I believe is fair. I also find it fair that people who are living in certain areas, such as London, receive more income than other regions as their difference in wages have to make up for the huge differences in living costs. The UK government have tried their best to make these the only reasons why some are paid more than others, but there is still some inequality and discrimination in the work place which has not yet been removed, despite the various Acts brought in. In the near future I believe that these inequalities will eventually fade out, but today the UK is still very much in the transition of becoming a fair labour market, and so unfortunately gender and race discrimination will affect some potential employees for the time being at least. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification essays

  1. Identify current patterns of ill health and inequality in the UK. Explain probable ...

    Nutrition and diet before and during pregnancy can have important long term affects on the health of the next generation. Lack of Exercise and especially physically inactivity in children is a lifestyle risk factor and has a major effect on health, weight problems and obesity.

  2. Differences between sex and gender

    Whereas, girls are more likely to be given dolls, teddy bears, prams and miniature, toy ovens which stimulate a rehearsal of female traditional roles such as cooking. A further type of gender socialisation Oakley has identified is verbal appellation. This refers to the content and style of language used by parents, which provides a further process of differentiation.

  1. Is the Underachievement of Ethnic Minority Children due to a Racist School System?

    Also I feel that by saying that family systems control how a child will do in education is saying that the white, middle-class family system is the best, because white middle class children often achieve better in school, this is prejudice because instead of just saying that each culture is

  2. Assess the causes and consequences of changes in the UK population

    This rate has generally declined over the past 100 years with just 54.5 per 1000 in 2001 compared to 115 per 1000 in 1900. Fertility rate can also be measured by examining the Total Fertility Rate, meaning the total number of children born to an average woman during her childbearing life.

  1. Ethnic relations in Singapore.

    a pervasive reality therefore Singapore being a relatively small nation we ought to preserve the very precious asset of what we call the racial and religious harmony and in order to preserve such peace and tolerance among these racial groups there are certain factors that we need to look into

  2. Poverty and Discrimination

    Quick to stress that she is not prejudiced, she then immediately scape-goats her chosen 'blame group' by repeating unfounded and stereotypical thinking in a never ending blame cycle. Structural approaches favour the ideal that racism culminates from the way society is organised.

  1. 'Differences in gender, class and ethnicity are no longer relevant factors in determining work ...

    For instance, Gypsies, Pakistani, Caribbean or Chinese European are just some of a few examples, which indicate cultural patterns rooted in particular areas of the world. In relation, Coleman and Cressey (1980) point out although a 'racial group' is often an 'ethnic group,' the two are not necessarily alike: 'A

  2. Does Multi-Culturalism depend on Removing Ideas of Ethnicity from the Concept of Nation, and ...

    instill loyalty and respect for the nation's values and principles but Kymlicka makes sure to distinguish civic nationalism from patriotism. In relation to the national state, the individual is a citizen with civic rights and duties and receives the benefits of modernity through an impersonal and impartial bureaucracy.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work