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Running trainers, in comparison with others, are both lighter and more flexible.

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Introduction

Introduction: Runners have improved performances with the advent of plastics in sport, as running shoes can now be 50% lighter and 100% more durable than they were 30 years ago. Polyether-block-amide is used in the soles of sports shoes, as it is resistant to flexure and abrasion as well as being lightweight. Polyvinyl acetate foam is used to make inner soles for its shock absorbency and elasticity. Lightweight water resistant plastics are also taking over from the traditional leather as leather was heavier and got even more so when it was water logged. Running trainers, in comparison with others, are both lighter and more flexible. Also, differences range in grip. For example, trainers for skateboarding tend to have far more grip than trainers for Astroturf. Also, many trainers are suitable for many sports such as basketball trainers and running trainers, however some are not suitable for other sports such as football boots. This is because football boots have studs underneath them for increased grip, and these studs mean that you cannot use the boots on many surfaces. The choice of sports footwear: The vocational aspects of your footwear: Identify materials used in footwear: Last The last is a three dimensional foot shaped mould which governs the inside shape of the shoe. It is based on 'average' foot sizes so varies between manufacturers for example in width, length and degree of curve from heel to toe. ...read more.

Middle

Other shoes use plastic inserts to achieve this. A more popular method is to use two densities of material within the sole. Typically, the material on the inside of the heel is harder than it is on the outside, so when a load is applied there is more compression on the outside of the foot forming an effective wedge. Arch Fill This is the area of mid-sole and sole under the arch. It should be designed to let the shoe flex with movement of the foot, whilst still providing it enough support. A large number of shoes have less material here. In most cases this does not provide enough support, and any trainer which is weak at this point should be avoided. A simple test is to bend the shoe and see if the arch correspondingly flexes - if it does it is too weak. Shoes that are strengthened in this area will not bend as easily. Upper This fits around the foot holding the shoe in place when the laces are tied. It can be made of nylon or nylon mesh, or a combination. It sometimes incorporates design features such as light weight, reflective or waterproof (and breathable) material. Sometimes parts of the upper which are prone to wear, such as the outer toe box and area around the lower heel, are reinforced with a leather type material or rubber. ...read more.

Conclusion

Impact absorption: * Impact absorption could be tested by a trolley on an inclined slope with a test block on it. By altering the ramp's inclination, the angle at which the block falls off provides the means of testing. The greater the angle the more energy is absorbed by the shoe. Here are my results: Angle of inclination Did the block fall off? 15� No 20� No 25� No 30� No 35� No 40� No 45� Yes To conclude, I would say that these trainers have a very high impact absorption level. This can mean many things. Firstly, it can mean that the trainers could be comfortable to wear. Secondly, it means that the outsole can absorb large amounts of impact and can prevent knee and ankle injuries because of its 'suspension'. Resistance to wear: * A wear-wheel can be used to test the trainer's resistance to wear. * Density can be tested with a Eureka can and a digital measuring scale. By recording the amount of water pouring out of the Eureka can and finding out the mass of the material with the scales, you can work out the density of the material. * Resistance to chemical corrosion can be tested by placing the piece of material into a weak acid, into water and under intense lighting. I will then note any physical changes. Conclusion: Evaluation: Comparison to manufacturing aspects: Compare footwear designs: 1 ...read more.

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