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Tourism principles and practice.

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Introduction Anyone who purchases a tourism product has probably been influenced by promotional campaign , assessed the product offer, considered whether he or she is willing to pay the pay the price and finally thought about how easy it would be to buy it. Each of these aspects of purchase are carefully planned by tourism marketers in an attempt to convince potential tourists to buy their products. They are the basic ingredients of the marketing mix , the aspect of marketing that we consider in detail in this assignment. Each of the areas the make up the marketing mix involves the complex set of management decisions which have to take into account both the individual mix strategy as well as the combined effect of the whole mix on the target market groups. (Tourism principles and practice) 1. People, process and physical evidence: expanding the marketing mix Marketing mix originally devised by booms and Bitner in the early 1980s, who added people or participants in the service delivery, process of delivery and physical evidence. The reader will discern overlap between these three additional P's and some justifiably consider them as part product and part communications mix. But the extra three-p framework is particularly useful for tourism, which is typically a high contact service (in people component), an extended and complex service (the process component) and a service that can only be evaluated by the consumer as they experience the delivery (incorporates the physical evidence component). An inclusive tour, for example, involves extensive interaction with the tour's operator employees, with the staff of other organizations such as travel agency, airline, accommodation providers, restaurants, bars and clubs, with other tourists, and with destination residents many of whom do not perceive them as part of the tourism industry. The product is rich in human contact and there are plenty of opportunities for error especially if a product is consumed over a lengthy time period, say a week, and involves a number of different service providers. ...read more.


Marketing analysis marketing planning measurements and project- Forecasting tions of market volumes, Shares and revenue by Relevant categories of Market segment and Product type 2. Consumer research segmentation, branding (a) quantitative And positioning measurement of Consumer Profiles, Awareness, attitudes And purchasing Behaviour including Consumer audits (b) Qualitative assessment of Consumer needs, perceptions And aspirations 3. Products and price product formulation, Measurement add consumer testing Studies presentation, pricing of amended ad new product And market assessment formulation, and price sensitivity Studies 4. Promotions and Efficiency of measurement of consumer reaction Sales research communication to alternative advertising concepts and media usages; response to forms Of sales promotions, and sales-force Effectiveness 5. Distribution Efficiently of distributor awareness of products Research distribution network stocking and display of brochure / Channels and effectiveness of merchandising Including retail audits and Occupancy studies analysis of web Site usage and of call centres 6. Evaluation and overall control of Measurements of customer Performance marketing results and satisfaction overall and by product Monitoring studies product quality control elements, including measurement Through marketing tests and Experiments and use of mystery Shoppers Ten kinds of marketing research commonly used in travel and tourism Because marketing research has become a large and complex sector of economic activity in its own right, it has inevitably produced its own technical vocabulary. This chapter makes no attempt to cover the full range of technical terms but ten commonly used in practice to denote different research methods will be found helpful and are discussed below. They are: * Continuous and ad hoc. * quantitative and qualitative * primary and secondary * omnibus and syndicated * retail audit and consumer audit Continuous and ad hoc Commercial organizations find it increasingly necessary to measure certain key trend data on a regular or "continuous" basis. "Continuous" in this context typically means daily, weekly or monthly, although the growing use of internet distribution permits literally continuous data review. ...read more.


As the table shows, there are four mail channels for the distribution of tourism products. Price In the highly competitive environment of international tourism, price determination is crucial to the success of all organisations is the industry. Daily fluctuations in the price of holidays and other travel products are a fact of life in the majority of the enterprise economies of the world, reflecting changes in demand for products ad services. Tourism operators have to react to the pricing tactics of their competitors and alternations in global exchange rates, while at the same time monitoring their own internal costs, in order to increase or even retain their market share. Pricing policies in tourism We now need to investigate the potions open to the organisations when determining its pricing policies. Tourism enterprises can take one of two broad-based approaches when fixing their prices, the first based solely on the costs of providing the product, the second taking into account the level of demand associated with the product. It is more usual for tourism operators to Conclusion Commonly referred to as the fours Ps (product, price, place and promotion), the marketing mix is one of the most important concepts in marketing today. In attempting to achieve its marketing objectives , an organisation must decide what emphasis to put on each element of the mix; a newly opened leisure centre , for example, will spend more on promotion in order to attract new customers; a major tour operator may be forced to change its pricing structures when it discovers that a competitor has undercut its price ; a visitor attraction will need to review its product from time to time in response to changing market expectations; and a major travel company may decide t o close down its regional sales office , thereby altering the "place" component of the marketing mix. These examples show that the emphasis on the different components of the marketing mix will vary over time, as wall as between the different sectors of the industry. ...read more.

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