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Millennium Bridge.

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Introduction

Millennium Bridge Introduction In June 2002 the Millennium Bridge was opened to the public. This was going to be an extraordinary day for engineers as new designs and structures had to be used to keep to the specifications of the job. Although with most bridge structures there is always a degree in movement, the Millennium Bridge had large groups crossing the bridge at one moment in time, this then caused a greater than expected sideways movement. This made people feel uncomfortable and even sick walking across the bridge. So on June 12th the bridge had to be shut for further investigations into why the sudden movements had occurred. For this assignment we have to investigate the construction of the Millennium Bridge, explain the causes of failure and the method used to stabilize the bridge. Geography of the Area The Millennium Bridge is situated on the Banks of the River Thames, London. Within London the Thames is one of the main tourist sites and business settlements, it is a very expensive and modern area of London. It is near the Tate Modern and the Globe Theatre which are high tourist based areas which get visited throughout the year. There are many other bridges built along the Thames but none of them specifically for foot and as this part of London is being regenerated a new bridge is needed. ...read more.

Middle

The bridge has to create a minimal design that gives pedestrians unrivalled views of London, free from traffic and high above the Thames. The strength of the bridge has to be strong enough for pedestrians to walk over with ease but doesn't have to be to the strength of many transport bridges. Different types of Bridges The shear design of the project represents today's engineering techniques and knowledge so clear analysis was needed to which type of bridge the Millennium Bridge should be designed to look like Beam Bridge These bridges are the simplest of all bridge designs. It consists of a horizontal beam that is supported at both ends, either by natural land structure or by piers. Beam bridges are the most commonly used bridges. Truss Bridge Truss bridges are any that consist of a triangular framework. Plain beam bridges are made stronger by making them with trusses. Arch bridges also consist of triangles. The truss design distributes the stress throughout the bridge. Truss bridges can carry heavy loads and are usually cheap to build. Cantilever Bridge Cantilever bridges are a complex version of a beam bridge. In order to build one, two or more towers are built, and the bridge is built outwards from each tower. The arms are spaced so that a beam can be placed in between them. ...read more.

Conclusion

Scientific Information Crystal Structures - When a substance is cooled from a liquid to a solid the atoms and molecules bond together to form crystals. - The shape of the crystals vary but any one substance with crystals produced in a particular way will have the same shape . Cubic: salt/ diamonds (c) Hexagonal: Graphite (c) The crystal shape determines many of the electrical and mechanical properties of solid. For example carbon can take two forms, properties are very different. Diamonds are very hard while graphite is soft, brakes easily and slides easily. Atomic Models of Crystals The simplest way to imagine a crystal is a cube with an atom at each corner and a spring linking each atom. We can consider the density of the structure by working out the PAVCKING DENSITY- how many atoms fit inside the single cube. For the simplest cube only 1/4 of each atom is inside the cube. There are 8 atoms in each cube and so we effectively have 8x 1/4 atoms packed in. Dislocation These are gaps where the crystal structure is not repeated: We can stop the dislocation moving by introducing atoms of a different size. We produce and alloy. Polymers- Plastics and Rubber These are not crystalline. They are made up of long chains of carbon atoms-strings When a force is applied the strings straighten. From studying these crystal structures you can determine what type of metal you will need to use to make a strong sturdy bridge. ...read more.

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