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Nutrition for sport.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Brendan King There are some nutrients that the human body cannot do without, nutrients that are essential for everyday life, and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The requirements for each persons specific needs are different depending on the type of training you are doing, your sporting needs, or if you do no training at all. For example an athlete training for sport where muscle mass plays an importance (weightlifting, boxing), there are needs for a high intake of proteins in tandem with the right kind of training, which will build muscle effectively. An athlete training for an endurance event such as long distance running/marathons will require a high amount of carbohydrates in their daily diet, preferably complex carbohydrates such as pasta and potatoes, giving a slow burning release of energy. The everyday person's diet, a person perhaps not training specifically but recreationally will require a healthy balance of all the basic nutrients: * Carbohydrates - approx 60% of diet * Fats - approx 25-30% * Proteins - approx 12-15% * Vitamins * Minerals * Water * Fibre In this assignment I have taken my own food diary for one week, along with three other people, each with their own dietary needs in accordance with their weekly quota of activity as well as each persons BMR (basal metabolic rate) and their PAR (physical activity ratio). Basal metabolic rate Is the rate at which each subject burns calories during the day whilst resting, performing no activity or exercise. It is generally worked out by the formula: Weight of subject in kg x hours in the day My BMR for example would be 87 x 24 = 2088 kcal Physical activity ratio This indicates the rate at which you burn calories, and the amount of calories that you burn whilst performing tasks, sometimes relevant to a subjects training or as mentioned before at a recreational level. This physical activity ratio is based upon the subject's body weight, a subject with a heavier body weight working at the ...read more.

Middle

This is not part of a stable healthy diet; these sugars are used by the body quickly and upset the homeostasis of the body with a high burst of sugar that the body counters with the release of insulin. If the consumption of these simple sugars in the form of sweets is prolonged, the risk of sugar related illness such as diabetes in the extreme cases is greatly increased. As far as other nutrients are concerned, on the plus side there is quite a high consumption of fruits such as bananas and apples, providing essential vitamins as well as a sustained energy release. Ignoring the simple, sugary snacks, there is a basis for a relatively healthy diet, with some complex carbohydrates being consumed such as jacket potatoes, baked beans - also a good source of protein, and pasta - although not wholemeal, a good enough source of carbohydrates nonetheless. The liquid consumption again needs monitoring, with the high activity ratio of subject 3 the intake of water needs to be a minimum of 1.5 litres a day, ideally in excess of this amount in order to stop dehydration and to optimise ATP production for exercise. Subject 4 BMR: 87 x 24 = 2088 for a week: 2088 x 7 = 14616 Kcal / week PAR: Activity Duration Kcal / min Total football 240 mins 13.5 3240 walking 200 mins 6.9 1380 4620 BMR + PAR = 14616 + 4620 = 192.36 Kcal / week so: 192.36 / 7 = 2748 Kcal / day This gives an ideal intake for the following nutrients: * carbohydrates: 60% x 2748 / 100 = 1649 Kcal * protein: 15% x 2748 / 100 = 412 Kcal * fat: 25% x 2748 / 100 = 687 Kcal By assessing each day and adding all the nutrients separately, the results are: * Carbohydrates: total per week = 1384g / week per day: 1384 / 7 = 198g as an expression of calories: 198 x 3.75 = 742 Kcal to find ...read more.

Conclusion

350 83 7 9 100g w/sauce lean mince 200 3 9 20 45g orange juice 50 1 1 2 300ml water 500ml daily intake approx. 1.5litres of water. Subject 3 Fruit&fibre 225 52 3 8 80g milk 250ml 123 12 5 8 water 550ml vegetable bake 210 35 10 6 (carrots/onion/peas) water 550 ml banana 50 18 3 3 chicken 150 2 2 11 50g wholemeal rice 200 30 1 2 80g water 550ml fluid intake > 1.5 litres Subject 4 Milk 153 13 6 10 s/s 300ml weetabix x3 220 73 3 10 water 500ml chicken w/pasta 275 75 13 74 and vegetables 250g water 500ml 3/4 tin baked beans 350 68 5 23 banana 50 18 3 3 lasagne 225 89 5 27 275g water 500ml mixed veg. 150 37 8 10 (peas/carrots/corn) wholemeal rice 200 60 3 9 80g water 500ml fluid intake approx. 1.5litres Dietary Recommendations For Exercise/Competition Before Exercise/Competition: Dietary guidelines for before exercise mainly involve adequate carbohydrate and fluid intake for exercise. Two to six hours before and endurance event, a meal consisting of 85 to 200 g complex carbohydrates, low fat and low protein. Avoid foods known to cause stomach or intestinal distress. A liquid meal supplement providing a balance of fluid and nutrients may be helpful for athletes with pre-competition stomach distress. During Exercise/Competition: Small carbohydrate intakes, about 24 g carbohydrate every 30 minutes during endurance events more than 1 hour may delay fatigue. Athletes should be comfortable with this during practice sessions, because some athletes do not tolerate this well. Some athletes tolerate carbohydrate-containing beverages better. After Exercise/Competition: Carbohydrate intake after exercise helps to replace muscle glycogen. Muscle is better able to replace glycogen stores when up to 600 g easily digested carbohydrate is consumed within a couple of hours after exercising. Consumption of high-carbohydrate foods, as soon as possible after competition, promotes glycogen storage. Webliography www.penpages.su.edu www.webdietician. ...read more.

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