• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Oil, natural gas, and coal are the main sources of energy for modern use. All of these fuels are classified as fossil fuels. They are hydrocarbon deposits because they contain hydrogen and carbon

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Formation All of the three major types of fossil fuels were formed many millions of years ago in the Carboniferous period. The Carboniferous period occurred from about 360-286 million of years ago. Coal was one of these fossil fuels. At the time the land was covered with swamps filled with enormous trees and plants. As the trees and the plants died, they sank to the bottom of these swamps. They formed layers of a spongy material called peat. Over many hundreds of years, sand, clay and other minerals covered the peat that made it into sedimentary rock. More and more pressure was applied to the peat and also the heat built up making the water and gas squeeze out eventually forming coal! What is coal? ...read more.

Middle

The reason they are called fossil fuels is because they are all made from decayed plants and animals that have been preserved in the earth's crust by pressure, bacterial processes and heat. It takes millions of years for these organisms to chemically change into fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are usually found below ground. Coal is either mined or dug out while oil and natural gas are pumped out. Coal is widely distributed and is easier to locate than oil and gas. Formation of oil and gas Oil has formed throughout much of the Earth's history; in fact, oil is being formed in some parts of the Earth today. Almost all oil and gas comes from tiny decayed plants, algae, and bacteria. Oil from the North Sea is mainly found in rocks that formed during the Jurassic period - about 150 million years ago. ...read more.

Conclusion

As this happened the material was slowly cooked and changed. In this was the energy first given to the plants by the sun is transferred and the organic matter is changed into crude oil and gas. Oil forms first, then as the temperature and pressure increase at greater depth gas begins to form. Increasing heat and pressure first cause the buried algae, bacteria, spores and cuticles (leaf skin) to join their wax, fat and oil to form dark specks called kerogen. As rock gets hotter, chains of hydrocarbon chemicals use this heat energy to break away from the kerogen to form waxy and viscous heavy oil. At greater depth, the temperature rises. At higher temperatures the chains of hydrocarbons become shorter and break away to give light oil and gas. Most North Sea Oil is the valuable light oil. Gas from the Southern North Sea is methane. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Resistant Materials section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Resistant Materials essays

  1. Materials - Which is better: Man made or Natural?

    Since then many new plastics with different colours and properties have been developed. In the last 100 years our knowledge and understanding of materials has grown considerably. Today our use of traditional materials are constantly being improved and new materials are being synthesised from natural and man-made materials.

  2. My aim of this experiment is to recognize which material is the greatest sound ...

    followed by cardboard, bubble-wrap and finally polythene which I had predicted would be the worst insulating material of sound. I had used well chosen graphical plots as I had gone from 0 to 70, immediately through the symbol used, so that this had made my trend lines appear larger and

  1. 3. In what ways do the material conditions of city life shape and inform the ...

    By describing the cars as an army tearing up the town, we can immediately shape the city life of the narrative with the pollution and the noise of the cars. We can imagine the dirt and the hustle of the city.

  2. Material Selection for Oil and Gas Material 2

    These � are very close to 1. Table of Material Properties Material ?u (MPa) ?y (Mpa) E (Gpa) ?f (%) � ? (g/cc) UR Cost ($/lb) avg CCR (UR/( �.Cost)) Rank Brush Wellman Beryllium Copper Alloy M65 896 827 138 8 1.00 8.94 3.30 4.60 0.72 2 AISI Type S21800

  1. Material Selection for Oil and Gas Material 3

    SCC Weldability ?f % CCR (?y*CR*SCC*Weld) Rank AISI 304 240 2 565 2 2.25 55 2160 3 AISI 316L (A) 250 2 565 2 2 55 2000 4 AISI 410 Q&T 650 721 2 834 2 2 21 5768 1 AISI 410 T&Q230 1005 2 1475 2 2 11 8040 5 AISI 4140 Annealed 415 2

  2. NaturalRubber NR. (Hevea, rubber, natural cis-polyisoprene)

    The high elasticity of rubber is made possible by the ability of the chains to straighten and recoil. The bonds between the molecules in the rubber are what cause this structure but I'll just refer to these bonds as its cohesion for the benefit of those of you who don't do chemistry.

  1. Crude Oil and the petrochemistry industry.

    Once the oil has been clearly located the drilling rig can be removed and replaced by a pump which forces the oil into storage tanks at oil refiners. Oil is a mixture of hundreds of different chemicals, and can not just be usd staright out of the gorund or below the sea- in it's natural state it is quite useless!

  2. This case history documents events that occurred at the Markham coal colliery in Derbyshire, ...

    There is also an emergency stop button which activates the "ungabbing" gear that immediately disengages the engineman's brake control lever from the control valve on the servocylinder; the mechanical brake is then applied automatically. The Investigation The accident was the subject of a formal investigation by the U.K.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work