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What factors affect the cooling of hot water in a container?

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Introduction

Science coursework investigation - On what factors affect the cooling of hot water in a container? Harpal Loyal 11A Hypothesis: In this investigation I am going to look into the factors, which affect the heat transfer of hot water in a container. Heat will travel from a place that is hot to somewhere where it is cold. There are three methods of heat transfer, Conduction, Convection, and Radiation. In conduction heat energy is past along from molecule to molecule. Molecules move more rapidly as they get hot and collide with neighbouring molecules passing along the energy. This is only possible with solids because the heat can only be conducted through molecules next to each other. In convection hot molecules move carrying energy with them. Therefore this only works in liquids and gases. As the fluid is heated the molecules vibrate more quickly and move further apart. In radiation heat energy passes directly by means of waves from a hot object to the cold. Therefore it is the only kind that can pass through a vacuum. The factors, which I could investigate, are: * Volume of water * Surface area * Initial temperature * Material of container wind factor (air movement) * Insulation type * Size of container * External room temperature * Stirring or agitation The different insulator types could affect the temperature, depending upon the what material it is so that is why we chose to investigate the factor; insulation type, to see which materials are best at keeping the water hot and which materials allow heat transfer the most. ...read more.

Middle

4. By the time you have done step 3 the temperature should have fallen to 80�C. Therefore you should now begin the experiment. Start the stopwatch. 5. Every 30 seconds record the current temperature. Do this for a total of 4 minutes. 6. With the results obtained, take off the material around the beaker and pour the water down the sink. 7. Repeat these steps until you have a performed on all of the insulating materials. To present my results I will use a table and graph of temperature and the average end temperature. I will look at my graph and by the way the results turn out, I can tell what was the most poorest and best insulator to help write in my conclusion. Diagram: Thermometer Water 200 ml Insulating material (held by Sellotape) Wooden table Beaker Results: Time taken Sec. / Temperature in �C 0 30 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 Insulation Material Large bubble wrap 80 80 80 79 80 79 78 79 78 78 79 77 77 78 76 76 78 75.5 75.5 77.5 75.5 75 77 75 75 76 74.5 Small bubble wrap 80 80 80 79 80 79 79 80 78 78 79 77 77 77 76 77 77 76 76 76 76 76 75 75 75 74 75 Card 80 80 80 79 79 79 77 78 79 76 77 78 75 76 77 75 75 77 74 74 76 74 73 75 73 72 ...read more.

Conclusion

However some slight factors could have caused a very little difference. E.g. the thermometer sticking out left little gaps. Because the material going over the top sometimes didn't go all the way around the thermometer which didn't form an tight seal, so cold air etc. could have got in and distorted a bit of the experiment. Another very small factor is that the table we conducted our tests on had tiny little divots in them in some places. This could have caused a very slight difference because in- stead of conducting out it would have radiated out. . . . . . conduction Divot causing radiation from beaker instead of conduction I believe my results are fairly accurate and reliable as I gathered three sets of results. To make them more reliable I could have performed more tests, but there simply wasn't time to. From what I can see there isn't any anomalies, which is quite fortunate really. As it shows the test was conducted well. I feel that to get the best accurate and most reliable results, it should be performed in a proper laboratory with much more precise apparatus e.g. a digital thermometer. Other experiments I could do to check if my conclusion is right are to record the temperature fall in a thermo flask compared to a normal flask. To extend the investigation I could choose another factor e.g. volume of water, to examine or mix the current insulating materials and see what affect it has. E.g. putting silver foil under the foam would surely keep the water very hot. ...read more.

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