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Explanation of the Multi-store Modal model.

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Essay: Explanation of the Multi-store Modal model. The multi-modal model of memory (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1972) Sensory store - Short-term store - long term store. We know that the short-term store is limited in capacity (7 2 items) and limited temporally (about 15 to 30 secs) and can be easily disrupted if we are distracted in some way, information here tends to be stored acoustically - in terms of its sound. Long term memory on the other hand has an unknown capacity and its duration is also unknown and information here tends to be stored semantically e.g. meaning. Working Memory (Baddeley and Hitch). The Central Executive is the controlling agent which has a number of slave systems at its disposal including the Articulatory Loop, Visuo-spatial scratch pad and Phonological (acoustic) ...read more.


If the pieces were just randomly around the board then beginners were just as good at remembering them. Clearly there is a lot of top-down stuff going on to organise the info. Craik and Lockhart have also demonstrated that it is not rehearsal that is important but the kind of rehearsal and that elaborative rehearsal is the best way to have deeper encoding of material and therefore more permanent. The properties of sensory register are based on Sperling's (1962) findings from the part-whole procedure. Selected information from the sensory store then enters short-term store, and is held in a symbolic code. A key tenet of the theory is that the code is auditory-visual-linguistic in nature, although short-term stores for different modalities (e.g., kinaesthetic) are not ruled out. The assumption that information is stored in an auditory-verbal-linguistic code is based on Conrad's (1964) ...read more.


The idea of a rehearsal buffer--a bin with a fixed number of slots--is also discussed, both as a rehearsal strategy and possibly as a structural feature of the short-term store. Decay is the mechanism responsible for information loss. Another key tenet is that information is lost through decay, as opposed to interference. Long-term memory is, by contrast, permanent, and therefore different mechanisms are responsible for information loss in the short-term and long-term stores. Control processes associated with the long-term store are responsible for transfer from STS to LTS and for search/retrieval. Of course, later theorists (e.g., Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977) assumed that such automatic "transfer" is obligatory. Atkinson and Shiffrin distinguish between the term's short-term store and long-term store, on the one hand, and short-term memory and long-term memory, on the other hand. The latter terms refer to memory paradigms, whereas the formers are theoretical constructs. Both memory stores are involved in short-term memory and long-term memory experiments. ...read more.

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