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BTEC National Diploma in Health and Social Care.

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Merit 1- BTEC National Diploma in Health and Social Care. Despite the advances in the national health care system, designed to reduce health inequalities these inequalities still persist and therefore, there is an ongoing debate as to how to explain these differences as a prelude to addressing the problem. The Black report (1982) evaluated Britain's Health Service and its impact on the health of the population. It highlighted four different types of explanations for class differences in health. These four explanations are; 1. Measurement artefact. 2. Natural or social selection. 3. Cultural/behavioural differences. 4. Structural/materialists. The artefact approach challenges the statistics that link ill health to social class. This explanation argues that class- related health differences only appear because of the ways statistics are recorded and measured and therefore they are not real and do no exist. Reasons why this may be the case are that certain measures of both class and of health are bias and imperfect validity. ''In calculating mortality rates the occupation of the deceased is taken from death certification of the decreased is taken from death certificates, while total number of people in each class are calculated from occupations rewarded in the ten yearly censuses. ...read more.


* Ill-health may lead to unemployment rather than unemployment leads to ill-health. * This type of explanation has been involved to explain the preponderance of individuals with server mental disorders in social class (Townsend, P et al (1992). Illness itself, because of resultant disability, unemployment, or demotion, according to this argument, causes the decline in social class. Illness itself, because of resultant disability, unemployment, or demotion, according to this argument, causes the decline in social class. This phenomenon known as the ''drift hypothesis' explains that less healthy people tend to drift down the social hierarchy. An argument against this theory is that good health is not always a cause of upward mobility and in higher social classes who suffer poor health do not always drifts down. The impact of ill health on downward mobility is very slight and tends to be limited to certain sexes and age groups, namely, men in their late middle age. Poor health can effect social mobility, but the size of the effect is very small to account for very much of the overall health differences. Cultural/Behavioural Explanation: Cultural/Behaviour explanations suggest that social class difference in health is a consequence of behaviours which people chose to engage in. ...read more.


This can be caused by lack of education, longer distances to health facilities and work. Poverty is the most important determinant of health as people in lower socio-economic status continue to be disadvantaged in terms or risks of ill health. It is the materialist approach the Black Report adopted, which sees health as the result of political-economic differences or differences in the way members of different social classes are constrained to lead their lives. However, many who support the behavioural explanation object to the materialist explanation on the idea that many current health problems such as cancer are associated with high-risk activities such as smoking which can be avoidable. Despite the probable causes of patterns of ill-health and equality in the UK, and these explanations between health and social class and despite the welfare state and improvements in health in all sections of societies over the years this discrepancy of health including expectation of life, infant and maternal mortality and general level of health. Whilst the failure to close the social gap is a disgrace to some, others would argue that as in all levels of society there is no need for concern. Despite 60 years of The National Health Service, there remains marked differences in all parameters of health across the social class (www.patient.co.uk>patientPlus). ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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