• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Darwins evolutionary theory challenged the religious beliefs (that there is a fixed separation between humans and animals) by arguing that Homosapiens and other species of ape descended from the same ape-like ancestors

Extracts from this document...


Natural vs. Society In Europe, before the rise of science in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, there was a Judeo-Christian religious view and understanding that human nature was the creation of god. There was a religious idea of God's 'Great Chain of Being' which placed man close to the angels and were considered far superior to animals. It was common that human virtues were not seen as deriving from what was natural or animal. Freud believed that human nature was based on a psychological conflict between instinct (the natural) and civilization (the social). The European male was 'civilized' and was the ideal in which others were judged to be inferior and closer to animal nature. These others would include women and non-Europeans. The idea of the 'Great Chain of Being' influenced early scientists to try and categorize other races. For instance, Europeans and animals, and this provided justification for the inhuman treatment of colonized people. ...read more.


Although natural science has recorded the development of the capacities of humans over evolutionary time, social science has focused more on the expression of human capacities through social relations and culture in their accounts of human nature. Social and psychological observation methods give information about people in everyday social context. Archaeological burial sites suggest, that unlike animals death was treated symbolically in all human cultures. The creation and the use of symbols is seen as a defining feature of human nature. Self-consciousness (a person's awareness of himself or herself as if from the perspective of another person) is another feature of human nature. It is understood as a capacity that develops in relationships, both in their real and imaginary aspects, as a result of the capacity to symbolize. Unlike other animals, humans are aware of their existence in time and are aware of their past and their future. ...read more.


Experience throughout life, relies on a lifetime of meanings that are drawn from culture and social relations. This then transformed through imagination, needing and symbolization to make them creative and not determined by social structures. Humans symbolize; they have symbolic capacity, communicate with each other through symbols and use symbols to create and understand culture. Humans have self-consciousness, developed and enacted through interpersonal and social relations. Humans are aware of being in time. This both enables symbolization and is enabled by it. Humans have imaginative capacity that enables creativity in making things, making culture and relating to people. It explains why people are agents in their lives, more than the sum of external (social and physical) and internal (biological) structures that impinge upon them. The capacities for these human characteristics must derive from nature (more specifically, genes, hormones, bodily structures and the like), but it is in the social environment, mediated by human psychology, that human nature is expressed. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Child Development section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Child Development essays

  1. Why family structures are changing.

    different ways, for example in families were there is only one child they feel they are the most important and don't compete for love or affection however they don't know how to act around other children and as a result they are isolated but this is nothing new for them as they are use to it from their own home.

  2. Health and Social care

    In order to overcome this barrier, a client may choose to bring someone with them, perhaps even a member of their own family who can communicate with the doctor. A client may also request that a professional linguist helps them to try and communicate their worries to their GP.

  1. Transactional Analysis and Games Theory

    Those which represent archaic relics, still-active ego-states which were fixated in early childhood - emotional, spontaneous, creative, intuition. The Child consists of recordings of internal events (feelings) experienced in the first five years in response to external events. Like the Parental recordings, those in the Child are permanent.

  2. The Animals of Farthing Wood - review

    The book still contains pictures, but is more advanced, encompassing more writing along with the pictures and containing a main plot and several different characters and events. In the story, the main semantic field is that of animals; 'Fox', 'Badger', 'Tawny Owl' etc.

  1. Examining the advantages of creative activities to the client.

    Evaluation By doing this activity I'm hoping that my clients will enjoy working in this creative activity. I'm also hoping that this task has helped them with their maths a bit better. * E1 a clearly presented plan for both programmes of activities The Care Setting The care setting that

  2. How helpful is Wimpole Hall as a source in helping us understand the religious ...

    So in this case Wimpole Hall may lead you to the wrong conclusion. Similarly it is known through written sources that the chapel was never consecrated or blessed by a priest, so it could not be used for weddings, funerals or baptisms.

  1. Aggression - Biological Theory vs Behaviorist Theory

    These findings lend support to the view that biological factors do indeed play an important role in at least some forms of aggression. There are those who believe that aggression is caused by having access to guns, being a victim of abuse at the hands of parents and peers, or

  2. the human lifespan

    The baby can't really have any social needs until it is born and it can interact with parents. Birth and Infancy (0-3 years) At around 9 months after conception the baby is born a new baby is also known as a neonate.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work