• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The human body is exposed to thousand of germs; however the body does not get ill from them because of the immune system which acts as the bodies defense against infectious organisms and other invaders.

Extracts from this document...


Immunisation Introduction The body's immune system The human body is exposed to thousand of germs; however the body does not get ill from them because of the immune system which acts as the bodies' defense against infectious organisms and other invaders. Everybody has an inbuilt immune system which is also known as the 'natural immune system'. The function of an immune system is to defend the body against germs and microorganisms which are also described as pathogens and foreign invaders, which include bacteria, viruses and fungi. The immune system is made up of many networks of special cells, such as tissue, proteins and organs. The immune system does a great job keeping people healthy and preventing infections by attacking organisms and other substances that invade our systems and cause disease. However the immune system is an active natural immunity which defends the body from antigens which are substances which aren't recognized by the body's memory cells so in result of that an antigen would be described as foreign cells; however memory cells are special cells which are produced by the B lymphocytes which is also known as a B cell, the memory cells act as scavengers towards all the foreign cells, a memory cell is produced to retains the characteristics of a specific pathogen which enters the body in its memory till another one comes along, it prepares itself till the next one comes along, and it then recognises it and invades it. ...read more.


Phagocyte is a biological cell which invades micro organisms and other cells which may be harmful to the body, this is done thorough a special process called phagocytes. Macrophages also perform the same functions they also invade dead cells and other foreign organisms and then engulf them and act like scavengers. However a pathogen is a substance a gene which produces and causes many diseases and micro organisms in the body, it is a infectious organism however the human body comes into direct contact with pathogens everyday however the immune system recognises it as a intruder and destroys the infectious organism which then is no longer harmful and isn't capable to cause harm to the body any longer, when a person comes into contact with a pathogen his is considered as exposed, however when the pathogen enters the body and has produced a bacterium in the body this is then considered as being infected by a pathogen and this is when the natural immunity stimulates and then reacts. The immune system Bacteria's are found all around the body and exist under every condition of life which replicates every second. Virus is another concept of organisms, which reproduce but don't respire or nor do they move many are pathogenic; they are harmful and are capable of causing diseases. Fungi is as well as a bacteria and are most often associated with plants, it is truly pathogenic and is also capable of producing infectious microorganisms however Memory cells are made to invade and attack those foreign cells and then engulf it, this means to destroy it. ...read more.


and the child, when the antibodies are passes from her body to the baby's body through breast feeding; this provides a short term protection for the baby after it has been born, another way antibodies are passed from body to body is through the placenta and into the fetal blood. Passive artificial immunity Passive artificial immunity is made use of when short term protection is needed immediately, this is done by taking out antibodies from one individual and inserted into another, and the term antiserum is used for this procedure. The difference between active and passive immunity The differences between active and passive immunity are that active immunity originally produces the antibodies in order to invade the antigens; it becomes immune naturally due to the primary immune response. However passive immunity is when antibodies are transferred from one individual to another which then provides short term passive immunity, it becomes immune artificially. Immunisation Immunity is defined as the protection which is developed in the body against further damage by an organism or toxin, so basically this means that immunity means that you are protected against something, for example many children may become infected with bacteria or viruses which eventually leads to serious illnesses, however some of these organisms may also produce toxins which may result in serious damage however the body then develops resistance against further infections by the same organism or against the toxin which these organisms produce , this protection is called immunity. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Health and Social Care section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Health and Social Care essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Health and social care, OCR Nationals double award promoting health and well being

    4 star(s)

    3 tsps full of sugar Buns and a cup of tea with 3 tsps full of sugar Pastry and a cup of tea with 3 tsps full of sugar Sri Lankan traditional sweets and a cup of tea with 3 tsps full of sugar Lunch White rice with meat curry and two vegetable curries.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Research into Coronary Heart Disease

    4 star(s)

    Exercise regularly 4. Aim for an ideal bodyweight 5. Reduce emotional/mental stress Medications: 1. Medications to modify cholesterol levels - these include statins, fibrates and bile acid sequestrants. These drugs reduce the main material that deposits on the coronary arteries. They lower LDL levels.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Analysis of One Individual's Health and Wellbeing

    Exercise improves stamina, strength and supplement but it depends on how more often you do it and how regularly you do it. If you do exercise all at once, your body will be in shock, and your muscle will be jolted.

  2. Health and Human Deveopment revision notes.

    -Measured by: -Life expectancy (how long individuals may live for) -Mortality (the number of deaths) - Morbidity (illness or disease) - "When we measure the Health Status of a population we are measuring the extent of health problems rather than the level of actual health of the population."

  1. How to Get rid of Pimples and Acne

    3. Diet Your diet should be a healthy mix of all four food groups with a good dose of fresh fruits and vegetables to get your skin acne free. Chocolate and oily foods don't actually cause acne, but it never hurts to eat right and take care of your body.

  2. Unit 4 P1 -Human Lifespan - Conception and Development

    The only do this in their first and second months. The rooting reflex is when you stroke the baby's cheek with your breasts or fingers and the baby turns its head that way and makes sucking motions like when the mother tries to breastfeed their babies.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work