• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe the methods used by Civil Rights Protestors in their fight for equality in the southern states of the USA in the years 1954- 64

Extracts from this document...


Describe the methods used by Civil Rights Protestors in their fight for equality in the southern states of the USA in the years 1954- 64 During 1954-64 Civil Rights Protestors used a variety of methods in the fight for equality. All methods wanted to encourage Government intervention. Some Civil Right Groups were specialised to use a specific approach. The NAACP used the legal approach and wanted to gain equality through the Supreme Court. The NAACP had their own legal team and concentrated on challenging lynching and educational segregation. The NAACP had many legal test cases, which they hoped would eventually lead to desegregation. One of these was the 1944 case Smith V Allwright. The NAACP convinced the court to strike down a Texas practice, which excluded blacks from participating in primary elections. However, in 1954 NAACP won its landmark Brown V Board of Education that was led by Thurgood Marshall. The Supreme Court declared that schools, which were segregated, were unconstitutional. ...read more.


The Montgomery Bus Boycott lasted a year and effected whites economically. The boycott caught the attention of the whole of USA. The boycott was influential, as it showed non-violent methods of protest was effective. However, the limitations of Montgomery Bus Boycott were that blacks still had to resort to the Supreme Court to make a decision to desegregate the buses. From the incident at Little Rock the Civil Rights Protestors learnt a new tactic. To attack white racists who they knew would react violently as this would expose racism in the south and thus lead thus the Government would be forced to take action. An example of this is the Freedom Rides, which took place in 1961. Civil Right workers (CORE/SCLC/SNCC) travelled from the North to the South. The Freedom Rides were testing Supreme Court rulings against segregation on interstate buses. The Freedom Rides showed the viciousness of the whites. When the Freedom Riders reached Anniston, Alabama buses were stoned and set fire to. ...read more.


During the beginning of the 1960's a "youth led phase" was being formed. Many sit- ins were organised by SNCC and the aim was integrate lunch counters. Blacks would sit in the white area of a lunch counter and refuse to move. The protestors were often met with violence and verbal abuse. In 1960 in Greensboro, N.Carolina the most famous sit-in took place in a Woolworths lunch counter. One of the effects of the sit-ins were that they led onto jail-ins, kneel- ins, swim-ins etc. However, during the sit-ins internal disagreements were beginning to show between different civil rights groups. Finally, another method used for the fight of equality was the role of Martin Luther King. King emphasised ideas of non- violence, mass action and unity between blacks all over America. In conclusion in 1954 to 1964 many changes were made in the methods to gaining equality. Groups were beginning to become more unified in events e.g. Mississippi Freedom Summer, March on Washington. The approaches to gaining equality were combining different methods e.g. Birmingham, Alabama 1963. Also Civil Rights Protestors deliberately wanted to expose white extremism so then this would encourage Govt Intervention. Sharon Chahal ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE USA 1941-80 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE USA 1941-80 essays

  1. Civil Rights in the USA 1945-1975

    At the time of the decision, 17 states and the District of Columbia had segregated public schools. During 1952-1953, five cases were combined under the name Brown v. Board of Education. The four other cases were Briggs v. Elliot, Belton v.

  2. With what truth can it be asserted that the U.S.A was the land of ...

    minority groups and could never be until the hostility of whites was eliminated or at the least, reduced. The Native Americans were a different case altogether. They were viewed with suspicion by the whites due to the large differences in the culture and general way of life and many were hostile towards their plight.

  1. The USA 1941 - 80 : The Divided Union.

    * His two key bills of 1961, the Medicare Bill and the Education Bill both failed to get through the Congress and never became law. * These bills were blocked by Senators from JFK's own Democratic Party, opposed to his civil rights reform and his 'liberal' attitude to education and medical care.

  2. Civil Rights In The USA.

    When we compare sources A, B and C we can see that Elizabeth Eckfords account in source A can be reinforced by source C. In source A Eckford describes hatred and violent screams towards her from every direction. If we didn't have source C sceptics would suggest that Eckford

  1. Cuban Missile Crisis Essay

    It was a stark choice between co-existence and non-existence. * Both superpowers were on full scale alert. The USA had over 50 bombers armed with nuclear warheads continuously in the air during the crisis. When one landed, another took off.

  2. civil rights in the usa

    It was written and published in 1967 although it's a secondary source but it's reliable because Martin Luther King wrote it and he was a great peaceful protestor. It shows he's proud and he has pride in what he's doing and talks about his successes which occurred with non violence

  1. The United States or Divided States of America?

    in the 1960s were being persecuted and denied the freedoms of democracy. They did not have equal civil rights, as they did not have the freedom to vote. They were also unequal before the law, as many southern states especially had white biased judges who hated blacks.

  2. The Nationalist Option And Its Consequences on the Movement Towards Equality.

    However, the nationalist option was based on a collaboration of many different philosophical veiw points. Marcus Garvey was also a strong leader, whose message was articulated just after the death of Booker T. Washington. Garvey had established the UNIA in 1914 in Jamaica.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work