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Hitler's Germany Communist and Social Democrat parties Youth groups The churches The army

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Introduction

GERMANY * Communist and Social Democrat parties * Youth groups * The churches * The army Each of these groups used different methods of opposition. Communist and Social Democrat parties After the parties were banned, many of the leaders went abroad but some stayed in Germany and continued to oppose Hitler by: * Printing newspapers and pamphlets * Putting up posters and slogans * Trying to organise strikes Many members of these organisations were arrested and punished. Youth groups The Hitler Youth was the only youth organisation allowed by the Nazis, but other groups politically opposed to Hitler continued to exist. These included: * The White Rose group of students at Munich University, who printed pamphlets about Nazi crimes. They were arrested and executed. * The Edelweiss Pirates, who at the end of the war helped army deserters and refugees and stole armaments - one group attacked the Gestapo but 12 of the leaders were publicly hanged. * The Swing movement, who met to dance and listen to forbidden jazz music, and welcomed Jews to their social clubs. The churches The SS dealt with dissident churchmen very harshly; many who opposed the Nazis, both Catholic and Protestant, were imprisoned in concentration camps. Prominent dissident churchmen included: * The Bishop of Munster, who criticised the Nazis in a sermon and tried to encourage people to stand against them. ...read more.

Middle

Social effects of hyperinflation Hitler's rise to power After the failure of the Munich Putsch in 1923 Hitler tried to gain power in a legitimate way - to be elected rather than to seize control. The Nazi vote was slow to increase during the 1920s while things were going well, but the Depression changed the situation. By 1933 the Nazi party was the largest in the Reichstag although the other parties, working together, could still outvote them. Below are some of the main reasons for Hitler's success in 1933. 1. Hitler was a great speaker. 2. The various political parties were not prepared to work together. 3. The Depression of 1929 created economic problems. 4. The Nazi stormtroopers, the SA and SS, attacked other political groups. 5. The Chancellors appointed by President Hindenburg did not have enough support in the Reichstag and had to rely on the President's emergency powers. 6. Goebbels organised a very effective propaganda campaign. 7. People were alarmed by the 1929 Depression because they could remember the crisis of 1923. 8. Hitler and the Nazis targeted specific groups of society with different slogans and policies to get their support. 9. People had little confidence in the democratic system and turned towards the extremist political parties like the Communists and Nazis during the Depression. ...read more.

Conclusion

This exercise looks at these different aspects of life in Nazi Germany but will also remind you about the key ideas of source evaluation. Start here In evaluating sources, two key areas are the reliability and the utility of the source. Reliability means assessing whether or not you can trust the information. * How was the source produced? * Was the author in a position to get accurate information? * When and where was the source produced? * Why was it produced? The historian might not be able to check all this, but it is important to know if the information was second hand, if the source was written 20 years later, or if the author was motivated by fear or greed. When the historian considers the utility of the source, he thinks whether a source can still contain valuable information about, for example, daily life or people's attitudes, even if it is unreliable. The Weimar Republic and Gustav Stresemann From 1919 until 1924 the Weimar Republic had somehow managed to survive political challenges, economic disaster and social discontent. This was followed by a period of stability and apparent prosperity until 1929, but historians disagree about the extent to which the Weimar Republic was secure in this period. This exercise will help you work out your own views on these issues, and will also remind you about the techniques involved in source evaluation ...read more.

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