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How did the status and position of Jews change in the European countries Russia, France and Germany in the years 1880-1920?

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Introduction

The Jews 1880 to the Present Day How did the status and position of Jews change in the European countries Russia, France and Germany in the years 1880-1920? By Elizabeth Cranney 11H Throughout history Jews have been persecuted. I am going to write about how their status and position changed from 1880 to 1920 in the countries France, Russia and Germany. Anti-Semitism, the persecution of Jews, was introduced centuries before the year 1880. In Ancient times Jews were used as slaves by the Egyptian's, the Babylonian's and the Roman's. In many countries Jewish temples, synagogues were destroyed and Judaism was banned. As Christianity grew so did the persecution of Jews. Christians blamed the Jews for the death of Jesus Christ and the Bible calls the Jews, 'The children of the Devil'. Many high figures in the Church spoke openly about their hatred of Jews, Saint Jerome (374-419) said, 'They seek all earthly things, but think nothing of heavenly things...'Martin Luther, the Protestant reformist later said in 1543, '...we cannot tolerate them...therefore away with them...' In Medieval Europe Jews were ejected and tolerated in different countries. Jews were expelled from places such as England in 1290, in Spain the Spanish inquisition first tried to force Jews to convert to Christianity, and then they were finally expelled in 1492. There were also expulsions in France in the 14th Century, many Jews found refuge in Poland where they were guaranteed rights. ...read more.

Middle

Leon Blum was Jewish and he became leader of the Socialist Party after the First World War. He had a successful career in spite of many criticisms of him being Jewish from his opposition. In Russia, the Pale of Settlement was established in 1835. The Pale of Settlement was at the far west of Russia and Jews were ordered to live there. By 1897 there were five million Jews living in the Pale. The Jews were expelled to this area by the government because; the government thought of Jews as 'foreigners', that they were a different nationality. Jews living in the towns outside the Pale were only allowed to if they had a special permit, to live outside they had to be a benefit to Russia though, for instance they may have had to be writers; actors or pianists. Some towns inside the Pale also expelled Jews and permits were needed there too. The existence of the Pale in Russia shows that the Russian's did not want to associate with Jews, unless they had a special talent. The fact that some towns within the Pale did not permit Jews shows that ordinary people also did not tolerate Jews, not just the Russian government. 'Pogrom' is Russian for 'violent mass attack'. These pogroms were usually directed at the Jewish communities inside and outside the Pale. The first pogrom occurred in 1871 in Odessa, inside the Pale. ...read more.

Conclusion

Views in 1919 and 1920 by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party show hatred of Jews obviously still existed, Hitler wrote in a letter '...the final objective must be complete removal of the Jews.' and the Nazi Party wrote in their programme, 'No Jew can therefore be a German national.' This evidence shows most German Anti- Semites would not stop what they believed in just because the government did not agree with it. Between each country, France, Russia and Germany, there are similarities and differences. In all of the countries Jews were given equal rights, though there was still Anti-Semitic feeling in each country. In France and Germany Jews were allowed to sit in Parliament and in Russia they could become Communist Ministers. In Germany and Russia a new government brought hope to Jews. In some ways life changed for the better for some Jewish Russians and Germans between 1880 and 1920. The degree of change was obviously different in each country, even though Germany and Russia have a lot of similarities. It would also take the upper classes a lot harder to change the way they thought of Jews, since in France it was the upper classes that mostly spoke out against Dreyfus. The status and position of Jews did change in each country in 1880 to 1920. In positive ways, like in Russia and Germany, where Jews could become power figures for the first time and in negative ways, like in France with the Panama Scandal and the Dreyfus Affair; were some French acted Anti-Semitic in public for the first time. 4 5 ...read more.

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