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The Treaty of Versailles

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Introduction

History Revision The Treaty of Versailles USA - Woodrow Wilson issued 14 points Jan 1918. He wanted self determination for all countries and League of nations to prevent future wars, and wanted peace. Britain - Lloyd George a compromised peace, to avoid Germany seeking revenge, so that Germany could resume trade, but not become Communist. France - Clemenceau wanted huge compensation from Germany, making them weak. In Germany there was political chaos, with workers' risings and mutinies in the armed forces, the Kaiser had fled, and the government was weak. The Treaty of Versailles was signed in June 1919. Germany was not involved in negotiations, and had to agree. Most Germans saw this as "diktat" - dictated peace. The Terms and Conditions: 1. The Rhineland became a demilitarised zone. 2. Alsace-Lorraine went to France. The Saar was to be run by France for 15 years. 3. West Prussia went to Poland. Upper Silesia and Posen went to Poland. 4. North Schleswig went to Denmark. 5. Eupen-Malmedy went to Belgium. 6. Union with Austria was forbidden. 7. Germany's oversees colonies were taken away. 8. Danzig became a free city, run by LON. 9. The army was limited to 100,000. 10. Tanks and military aircraft were forbidden. 11. The navy was reduced to six small battleships, and subs were banned. ...read more.

Middle

Another set-back was when Italy invaded Abyssinia, 1935. Non-members continued to trade, and after some minor sanctions, Britain and France drew up the "Hoare-Laval Pact" to give 2/3 of Abyssinia to Italy. This collapsed, and the League finally placed sanctions on oil and petrol. It was too late - May 1936 - Italy took over Abyssinia and renamed it 2Ethiopia".The League sanctions ended, but Italy left the League in December 1937 anyway. Germany The Weimar Republic faced many problems, due to political opposition, and economic problems, connected to the war and reparations. Most Germans hated the government for signing the treaty of Versailles, and saw democracy as a foreign idea imposed on Gemany's "Kaiser rule" by the allies. The Communist Party (KDP) organised strikes in Berlin (March 1919) that were suppressed by the army and the Freikorps. Kapp's Putch of 1920 was defeated by a general workers strike. A communist uprising in the Ruhr was suppressed by the army and Freikorps, who shot thousands of workers. 1. In 1922, Germany could no longer pay reparations. 2. So, in 1923 French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr, to take food, coal iron ore and steel as payment. Germany replied with passive resistance. 3. The economy collapsed, leading to hyper-inflation. 4. In September 1923, Gustav Stresemann became Chancellor. ...read more.

Conclusion

1. Policies were based on the 3Ks, and women were encouraged by a system of loans to stay at home and have children. 2. The Motherhood Cross system gave medals to women who had large families, allowing them certain privileges. 3. Law forced women out of certain jobs, and employers were encouraged to give all jobs to men. 4. Advances towards equal rights for women under the Weimar Republic were removed. 5. Women 'unfit' to be mothers (physically and mentally disabled) were sterilised. 6. The 'German Women's Enterprise' trained women in household and parenting skills. 7. The Nazis discouraged make up and trousers, and gave guidelines on what hair should look like. 1. The Nazis wanted to control young people to ensure their support in the future. 2. Teachers had to swear loyalty to Hitler and join the "Nazis' Teachers' League". Jewish teachers were sacked. 3. A new curriculum was made with emphasis placed on history, race sciences and PE. Textbooks were rewritten to include Nazi ideas. 4. Young people were encouraged to join Hitler Youth Programmes. By 1939 membership was essential. 1. In 1934 Jews were banned from certain public places, and certain jobs. 2. In 1935, the Nuremberg laws removed German citizenship from all Jews, forbade inter-marriage, and limited Jewish people's rights to work and own property. 3. In November 1938, the "Night of the Broken Glass" saw attacks on Jewish homes shops and synagogues. Many were put in concentration camps, and the Jews were fined one billion marks for damages. ...read more.

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