• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Was the failure to make a breakthrough on the first day of the Somme the result of bad planning by Haig?

Extracts from this document...


Was the failure to make a breakthrough on the first day of the Somme the result of bad planning by Haig? Many people, holding a great deal of experience and authority within the British Army, helped to co-ordinate the Battle of the Somme, and so to focus the blame on one person, I believe, is unjust; although no-one can undoubtedly say that this was the worst day in the history of the British Army. Haig has often been criticised for the ill-preparation for the Battle of the Somme. However, he was justified to make the necessary actions. This was most noticeable when he was forced by politicians to move the offensive to June rather than August, in order to distract German forces from Verdun and ultimately keep France in the war. Consequently many corners had to be cut in the manufacturing of munitions and the training of troops. So there should be no surprise that one third of all the shells fired never exploded due to faulty fuses. Furthermore, because he had to launch the attack prematurely by several weeks, Haig was not supplied with enough of the heavy artillery capable of destroying the deep German dug-outs; therefore when the first wave of British troops attacked they were overwhelmed by the German resistance. However, many individuals believe that Haig had not paid any attention to intelligence reports which stated that the Germans had deep concrete bunkers. ...read more.


Many of the soldiers were conscripts, and so lacked the necessary training and experience to run across. If they had adopted a Blitzkrieg type of strategy then there would have been confusion and disorder throughout the Somme region; because bulges would form, leaving themselves flanked by the enemy, and then eventually they would be slaughtered. This is exactly what occurred two miles south of Beaumont Hamel, when the 36th Ulster Division ran to the German's line creating a bulge. Some may argue that Haig was to blame for the decision to walk; even so this method retained structure in this offensive which was imperative, especially when the headquarters was about 100 miles away. Understandably, Haig was lacking vital French troops who were defending Verdun. This meant that their forces fighting in the Somme region were stretched. Without these troops from the French Army, who were better trained and had more of the heavy artillery, a breakthrough on the first day would be very hard to achieve. I, along with many others, believe that General Haig can not be blamed for this problem. Morale was a fundamental part towards success, without it men would have lacked the will to fight. Therefore British troops were often told that "not a rat would be alive after the bombardment", and it would just be a "walk in the park". ...read more.


Understandably, the majority of people were shocked by the massive losses during the Battle of the Somme, whereas Haig thought differently. However in a war of attrition the Allies had the advantage, as their combined populations were great enough to allow such losses, while the Germans could not afford similar losses. Personally, I consider the Somme was a success, as the utmost aim was to distract German forces from Verdun, thereby saving the French from surrendering. Furthermore, to base one's opinion about General Haig on the first day of a four month campaign is unjust. Undoubtedly, the approach taken by the majority of senior officers was too liberal. Nevertheless, I consider Rawlinson and the politicians to be at blame just as much as Haig, because the politicians forced the offensive to be launched prematurely and Rawlinson created an offensive which he wanted, not Haig. However, Haig had failed to seize a firm command over this offensive and Rawlinson. However, ultimately I consider that it was the failure of the artillery bombardment which caused there to be no breakthrough on the first day. If the bombardment worked as well as previously intended, then a considerable amount of enemy territory would have been gained. There was no possibility that Haig could have ensured that the fuses were not faulty and that more heavy artillery was present. Therefore, I believe that Haig shouldn't solely take the blame for the failure to breakthrough on the first day. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Britain 1905-1951 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Britain 1905-1951 essays

  1. General Haig - Butcher or Hero?

    As a result of more advanced weaponry and technology, heavy losses were inevitable on both sides. The generals were accused of being reckless and uncaring for their men's lives because of the sheer number of dead under their command. Peter Fisher, in source 2, says Haig 'never cared for men's' lives', and Foreman likens the war to the 'generals'...

  2. The first major German offensive occurred at Verdun.

    We must bear in mind that these two men actually despised each other, and so would be especially eager to pass the blame onto each other. Source C: (Extract of a report sent in December 1916 by Haig to the British cabinet about the effects of the Battle of the Somme)

  1. General Haig

    This suggests that he is proud to be part of a nation where millions of British people would rather die than call themselves and there nation cowards. The source is very anti Haig/General in the sense that he says "and also the two or three individuals who would rather the

  2. Was General Haig a donkey or a great commander?

    Unfortunately this was not to be the case. The trouble with the accuracy of the information was compounded by the troubles with communication. The radio had only just been invented and was very crude, requiring huge generators to power it.

  1. Is It Fair To Blame Haig For The Failure Of The First Day Of ...

    So who was to blame for this catastrophe? Many accuse Field Marshal Haig. He was the man in charge of the attack. It was under his orders that tens of thousands of men walked slowly across no-mans-land to their deaths.

  2. Free essay

    Bletchley Park

    Due to the fact that they were able to crack German codes that they had intercepted by using codes such as "Ultra" or "Shark", it allowed them to pin-point the location of German U-Boats, which were dealing severe blows to the convoys that were to export goods to Britain.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work