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What is the long-term history of relations between mainland Britain and Northern Ireland?

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Introduction

What is the long-term history of relations between mainland Britain and Northern Ireland? When Elizabeth I reigned there was already a sense of unrest in Ireland. Many Irish Catholic lords rebelled against Protestantism and English rule. Elizabeth was afraid that Ireland would ally with England's Catholic enemies. She was determined to rule Ireland firmly. The Elizabethan attempt to conquer Ireland ended in 1601. To reward her Protestant supporters Elizabeth gave them lands taken from the Catholic Irish rebel leaders. King James I took this plantation of Ireland by loyal Protestants further. He began a full-scale plantation of Ulster in 1609. Scottish and English Protestant were encouraged to settle on land taken away from Catholics. All they had to do was take an oath of loyalty. The Battle of the Boyne was the decisive battle in the struggle between Ex-king James II of England and his successor, William III, for control of Ireland. ...read more.

Middle

The Duke of Wellington (who was Prime Minister) and the Home Secretary Robert Peel wanted to avoid rebellion. They persuaded King George IV and parliament to pass the Catholic Emancipation Act in 1829, which would allow Catholics to enter Parliament as MPs. Daniel O'Connell wanted an end to the Act of Union. Towards the end of the 1870's Irish farmers had two severe blows. One was the competition from North America which began to send cheap corn to Europe so farmers had to lower prices to compete. This led to the farmers being unable to pay the rent to their Tenants. The Land League was set up to campaign for lower rents and protection against evictions. This was popular among Catholics and Protestants because it forced politicians to take notice of the suffering of the tenant farmers. By the end of the 19th Century many Protestant landlords were selling off their land. ...read more.

Conclusion

To win Unionist support it was agreed to dely Home Rule until the war was over. 5500 Ulstermen died in the battle of Somme. Unionists were willing to fight to stay British so it would disable the British Government forcing Ulster to join an all-Ireland Republic after the First World War. At the end of the War of Independence, where Nationalists killed those who fought on the side of the British, Nationalist leaders, Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith, were offered a peace treaty by the British Government. This treaty would allow Ireland to have the same constitutional status in the community of Great Britain. Although they were a free state the treaty stated that in time of war of 'strained relations with a foreign power' the British Government could call up on their defences for help. Many had problems with this because they felt that it still brought them into the British Empire and acknowledges that Britain was the direct monarch of Ireland and the governing authority. Question 1 Max Buadi ...read more.

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