GCSE: Comparing length of words in newspapers essays
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324 GCSE Comparing length of words in newspapers essays
Strategy ~ The data I am going to collect are: * Gender (Qualitative) * Age (Quantitative) * Year Group (Quantitative) * Number of hours of exercise per week (Quantitative, Discrete) * Body Temperature (Quantitative, Continuous) Primary Data ~ Year 7 boys: 101 20% of 101 = 20.2 20 boys Year 7 girls: 113 20% of 113 = 22.6 23 girls Year 9 boys: 108 20 % of 108 = 21.6 22 boys Year 9 girls: 104 20% of 104 = 20.8 21 girls Year 11 boys: 116 20% of 116 = 23.2 23 boys Year 11 girls: 96 20% of 96 = 19.2 19 girls Secondary Data ~ Year 7's from 2 years ago (Now Year 9's.)
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Furthermore, I think that the local newspaper will be easier to read than the tabloid. This is because the local newspaper is aimed at all ages so it will be easy to read and understand by intelligent people and also none intelligent people. Overall I think that the local newspaper and the local newspaper will both be similar, however I think that the quality newspaper will not be easier to read than the other two newspapers because the quality newspaper is aimed at intelligent people. Therefore the quality newspaper will not be quite easy as the other two newspapers.
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Firstly I will randomly choose 20 pages in each newspaper. Then, after counting all the sentences in the selected article on the page, I will use stratified sampling to find out how many sentences from that article I need to collect data from. For instance if there are 24 sentences in an article, out of a total of 329, then I will collect sample 7 sentences in this article (24/329 x 100= 7.29 rounded down to 7). My aim is to get 100 pieces of data from each newspaper, bringing the total sample to 400 which I believe is a good size.
- Length: 1449 words
Also I calculated the averages. First article The article in the broadsheet was titled "EU set for troublesome week ahead" and contained twenty paragraphs. The article in the tabloid was titled "EU better not" and contained nineteen paragraphs. The table below is a tally chart for the above articles showing the frequency of each word length between 1 and 12. Broadsheet Tabloid Number of Letters Tally Number of Letters Tally 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 Broadsheet Tabloid Range 6 8 Median 4 3 Mean 4 4* Mode 3 3 This table shows the averages for both the broadsheet and tabloid.
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A possible difficulty when recording data could be whole page adverts, being the number of pages apart that I am measuring, for example in the Independent, page 14 could be a whole page advert, then pages 15-20 could have no or relatively fewer adverts yet the next page being measured (page 21) could be another full page advert, if this occurs, to reduce possible bias, I will record page 22 instead and then continue with page 28, as it would be misrepresentative of the newspaper, as the percentage of adverts in the newspaper in my data, would be increased more than it is.
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A familiar problem but thoroughly and clearly laid out. ? Score 3 Selection and Collection of Data ? Relevant data from more than one source ? Detailed and clear description of methods ? Justification and rejection in context of several recognised sampling methods ?
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This would also give me a general idea of what type of newspaper I'm dealing with. Hypothesis One: - I will now categorise the articles: - Article Categories Daily Mirror Daily Mail Sport 38 34 Crime 21 12 Politics 8 27 Celebrity 23 7 Advert 138 152 Weather 0 1 Health 6 6 Entertainment 23 33 Fashion 0 2 Art 1 1 Social/Lifestyle events 6 23 Finance 7 24 Opinions 9 4 Total 280 326 The Daily Mail has a higher number of articles but Daily Mirror has a higher proportion of adverts.
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3x3 Grids 1. 12 13 14 22 23 24 32 33 34 12x34 = 408 14x32 = 448 The Difference is of 40 because 448 - 408 2. 23 24 25 33 34 35 43 44 45 23x45 = 1035 25x43 = 1075 The Difference is of 40 because 1075 - 1036 3. 34 35 36 44 45 46 54 55 56 34x56 = 1904 54x36 = 1944 The Difference is of 40 because 1944 - 1904 This shows me that a 3x3 grid will always have a difference of 40 and if I continued doing a 3x3 grid sequence I would always
- Length: 1262 words
I have taken samples of 6 articles pitched at a wide target market in the level of read. I have not counted punctuation as a letter, or considered and figures as a letter within the word. Hyphens were considered separate words due to the lack of attention paid to punctuation. Abbreviations were counted as a word and the letters were counted as part of a word due to the pact the abbreviations have underpinning meaning within the text and demonstrates how words are shortened for an easy read. Headlines have been counted as words within the article. Methodology Raw data has been counted and displayed in a tally chart to make it easier to view and analyse the data.
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X = ?X ? N (Mean = The total of the single frequencies ? the number of frequencies) This is the normal method of working out the mean, by adding up all the numbers you have (or in this case the frequencies) and dividing them by them by the amount of numbers (or frequencies) there are in total. 3) R = 1 - __6?d²__ n(n² - 1) This equation is used to work out the coefficient of rank correlation between two variables.
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THE SUN NEWSPAPER Number or letters Tally Frequency 1 4 2 19 3 21 4 21 5 8 6 9 7 2 8 5 9 4 10 2 11 3 12 2 TOTAL 100 AVERAGES THE SUN NEWSPAPER Number of letters per word Frequency Total 1 4 4 2 19 38 3 21 63 4 21 84 5 8 40 6 9 54 7 2 14 8 5 40 9 4 36 10 2 20 11 3 33 12 2 24 100 450 The averages for the number of letters per word in The Sun Newspaper are: MEAN FORMULA: Add all the numbers together to obtain a total divide by the total frequency of letters.
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Starting from the first word of the first article, I will choose every 10th word, and so on, until I have the amount of words required. I will record the lengths of the words into a tally chart. I will add all the data from each section into one big tally/frequency table. I will then convert the data into pie charts, in order to show how much of the article (%) is made up of certain-length words. I will also create box plots and frequency polygons to show the median and inter-quartile range of the data.
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I also think that the average sentence length will be greater in a broadsheet than a tabloid newspaper. I think this is true because the broadsheet newspaper are aimed at an audience of intellectuals and provide more informative articles in the news, whereas the tabloid is more aimed at entertaining people and is similar to a magazine which is full of gossip and shorter, briefer articles. Brief Pilot: I will begin with a brief pilot study so that I can recognise any problems that may occur when collecting my actual data.
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I will look at the first 100 words in the broadsheet first and record this information in a tally chart, this information can then be used to create bar charts. This will enable me to visibly see if my hypothesis is true. I will then repeat these steps for the tabloid newspaper. THE TIMES NUMBER OF LETTERS TALLY FREQUENCY CULMULATIVE FREQUENCY 1 2 2 2 15 30 3 27 81 4 12 48 5 9 45 6 9 54 7 6 42 8 9 72 9 4 36 10 4 40 11 1 11 12 2 24 Mean 4.85 Mode
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It would just be an overall summary of a paragraph or a little tiny section of the newspaper. I would want a number of words, which would figure out a decent conclusion and prove and disprove my hypothesis. If I chose 400 words, this in my opinion is still too less to make a valid conclusion to either proves or disprove my ideas. If I chose over 2000 or something ridiculous like that then it would take me ages just to collect the data then I wont have time to analyse them as the deadline of the coursework would be set.
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I will count sentence length, calculate and compare word length, finding the averages in the process plus work out the percentage of the article that is devoted to pictures and photos and record this on a spreadsheet. This should provide evidence to decide which of the papers is easier to read. * Using computer technology, I will collect totally primary, discrete data and will record my findings using a word processor program along with autograph and a spreadsheet program. I will group my data into sections on my spreadsheet, asses each set individually, representing it in the form of statistical diagrams, charts and graphs.
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Plan To evaluate the readability I compared words from three articles from each newspaper. I selected three articles from the broadsheet then found the same three in a tabloid in order to make my evidence as reliable as possible. I will find one sport articles and two news articles that are covered in both papers. The two newspapers I compare will be of the same date to make the investigation as fair as possible. I will asses the readability of both papers by- * Comparing the word lengths in each article of the first 100 words therefore giving us an indication of the complexity of the language and seeing which one has more, long words, giving us a hint at which one would be harder to read.
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For my Coursework I will use the following newspapers: The Sun The Daily Mail The Times Each article should have around 300 words.
Word length First of all I am going to count all the words of my chosen articles. This part of the coursework is the most time consuming one, because the counting takes the longest. I will start, with what in my believe is the lowest quality newspaper followed by the medium and than finally the highest quality newspaper, which is in my opinion the Times. I will use the same article of the newspapers for every example. I will also use a cumulative frequency, which is the running total of the frequency at the end of each class interval.
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This is because normally longer sentences contain longer words, which are probably harder to read, so the reading age would get higher as sentence length increases. * I think The Order of the Phoenix will have a shorter standard deviation in terms of sentence length than Nicholas Nickleby. This is because Nicholas Nickleby is a book aimed at adults; therefore it will have more difficult sentences which will cause some variation in length. * I think the mean syllables per word will be very similar in both books, even though they are aimed at different audiences you will still have one and two syllable words.
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As one name is much longer than the other this would be skew the results. 5. I shall firstly record how many letters there are in each word. 6. I will first present it in order as it is in the book and then classify the data into a tally-table. 7. I will then work out the median, the mode, the mean and the range. 8. After this I will interpret my results into frequency diagram so that it would be easy to visualise trends.
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The reasons for my predictions are that tabloids, such as The Sun, are read by working class people with less education. Therefore the language used would probably be simpler and less complex. Therefore, the words would have fewer letters in them and the sentnces would have fewer words in them. Broadsheets, such as the Evening Standard, are read by people with a good education and have longer words and sentences. The Daily Mail would be a mixture of the above.
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Now that I have completed my pretest, I will now continue with my main investigation. In my main investigation, I will take a sample of eighty sentences from each newspaper. I will do this by using stratified sampling. I am using stratified sampling because this will enable me to take a sample of 80 sentences which is proportionately spread out through the newspapers. To use stratified sampling, I will measure the total amount of column inches which each newspaper has for the following sub topics in newspapers; Politics, Business, Sport, Current Affairs and Entertainment. I will only be measuring the actual main text in each newspaper, not pictures, headings, subheadings or adverts.
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9 37 18 10 37 11 39 22 12 40 12 13 40 Total 40 40 233 Using the same method as before, I will make a table showing the averages for each of the newspaper articles. Evening Standard Daily Mail The Sun Median 6 5 5 Mean 5.825 (6) 5.7 (6) 5.125 (5) Mode 7 5 4 In this set of articles, the Evening Standard has a higher median, mean and mode which mean that, on average, more letters per word than the other two newspapers.
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Aim: having been presented with some data, to come up with a hypothesis and try to prove or disprove it using statistical techniques
I wish to investigate this further amongst 30 students, as I feel that this will allow me to get an idea of how the whole group would have reacted to this. The reason I have chosen 30 is because I personally feel this is a sample size which allows me to have a balanced selection. I will select this sample group randomly, the method I shall use in order to do this is called random sampling and I shall use my calculator in order to assist me with this, as it has a special devise called a random number generator.
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I will collect this data from the 4 different types of papers, with 4 different versions of the same paper. I will then represent the data collected in the form of tables (to 3 s.f.) and bar graphs. Firstly, to work out the amount of space devoted, I must calculate the area in cm² of the whole front page. This can be done by measuring the width and length of the paper (with a ruler) then times the two figures together.
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