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• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Maths
• Word count: 4538

# Investigating the relationship between the T-total and the T-number.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Mathematics GCSE Coursework

Part 1

Investigating the relationship between the T-total and the T-number.

This is the 9 by 9 grid:

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

Let T be the T-number and Y be the T-total.

 1 2 3 11 20

We focus on the T-shape drawn above first.

If the other numbers in the T-shape other than the T-number are taken away from the T-number, a T-shape like the one drawn below is found:

 T-18-1 T-18 T-18+1 T-9 T

Because of the grid size, the centre column of the T-shape is decreasing by 9 up the column from the T-number at the bottom. Thus a formula can be worked out to find any T-total with the T-number given:

## Test

For the T-shape drawn before, the T-number is 20 and the T-total is:

20 + 11 + 2 + 1 + 3 = 37

Let us see if the formula works.

Y = 5(20) – 63

## Y = 37

Two more tests on this formula are to be done for accuracy.

 15 16 17 25 34

T-number = 34 and T-total = 34 + 25 + 16 + 15 + 17 = 107

## Y = 5(34) – 63

Y = 107

 49 50 51 59 68

T-number = 68 and T-total = 68 + 59 + 50 + 49 + 51= 277

## Y = 5(68) – 63

Y = 277

### Y=5T – 63

The formula for T-total is tested for 3 different samples, which is proved to be worked for a 9 by 9 grid.

Now the T-shape is going to be translated to different positions in the 9 by 9 grid and the relationship between the T-total and the T-number is going to be further investigated.

 1 2 3 11 20

Take the T-shape drawn above as the original position.

If this T-shape is translated by the vector  3  , the new T-number and the T-total will be

-1

changed to 32 and 97 respectively.

 13 14 15 23 32

If the T-shape is then translated by the vector   2  , the new T-number and the T-total will

-2

be changed to 40 and 137 respectively.

 21 22 23 31 40

A formula of this translation of the T-shape can be worked out by working the vectors with the original T-number.

Let  a

Middle

Therefore:

The formula for T-total in an 8 by 8 grid worked out before:

Y= 5T – 56

The formula for new translated T-shape in an 8 by 8 grid:

y = 5T – 56

y = 5(T + a – 8b) – 56

## Test

 28 29 30 37 45

Take this T-shape above as the original position.

If it is translated by the vector  -3  , the new T-shape will be:

-2

 41 42 43 50 58

The T-total of this new T-shape is 58 + 50 + 42 + 41 + 43 = 234

Let us see if the formula works.

y = 5(T + a – 8b) – 56

y = 5[45 + (–3)– 8(– 2)] – 56

y = 234

 42 43 44 51 59

Take this T-shape above as the original position.

If it is translated by the vector   4  , the new T-shape will be:

4

 14 15 16 23 31

The T-total of this new T-shape is 31 + 23 + 15 + 14 + 16 = 99

Let us see if the formula works.

y = 5(T + a – 8b) – 56

y = 5[59 + 4 – 8(4)] – 56

y = 99

After investigating the two formulae for new translated T-total for a 9 by 9 grid and an 8 by 8 grid, a general formula for new translated T-total for any grid of different sizes can be worked out:

Let G be the width of the grid.

y = 5(T + a – G b) –  7G

This general formula is basically based on the formula for T-total on any grid of any width worked out previously, and further developed by adding the vectors of the translation.

#### Part 3

Use grids of different sizes again. Try other transformations and combinations of transformations. Investigate relationships between the

T-total, the T-numbers, the grid size and the transformations.

(9 by 9 grid)

First of all, the T-shape is going to be translated in 90° clockwise. To start with, take the T-number as the centre of rotation.

The original position:

 1 2 3 11 20

The new T-shape will be:

 13 20 21 22 31

If the other numbers in the T-shape other than the T-number are taken away from the T-number, a T-shape like the one drawn below is found:

 T+2-G T T+1 T+2 T+2+G

Conclusion

Transformation of 90° clockwise:

## Y = 5(T – G + 1) + 7

Transformation of 180° clockwise:

## Y = 5(T – 2G) + 7G

Transformation of 90° anti-clockwise:

## Y = 5T – 7

Y = 5(T – G + 1) – 7

Then, the general formulae for all combinations of transformations and translations with the centre box of the T-shape as the centre of rotation other than the T-number will be:

Combination of transformation of 90° clockwise:

Y = 5(T + a – G b) + 7

## Y = 5(T + a – G b – G – 1) + 7

Combination of transformation of 180° clockwise:

## Y = 5(T + a – G b – 2G) + 7G

Combination of transformation of 90° anti-clockwise:

## Y = 5(T + a – G b – G + 1) – 7

These formulae are formed by merging the 2 parts, T + a – G b and T – G + 1 of the formulae for translation and transformation with the centre box of the T-shape being the centre of rotation respectively.

## Test

Using a 7 by 7 grid this time.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49

Take the T-shape below as the original position:

 3 4 5 11 18

Take the centre box as the centre of rotation.

If this T-shape is translated by the vector  -2  , and then followed by a transformation of

0

90° clockwise, the new T-shape will be:

 3 8 9 10 17

T-number = 8 and T-total = 8 + 9 + 10 + 3 + 17 = 47

Let us see if the formula works.

## Y = 5(18 + (–2) – 7(0) – 7 – 1) + 7

Y = 47

Using the same original position, if it is translated by the vector  2  , and then followed by

-1

a transformation of 180°clockwise, the new T-shape will be:

 13 20 26 27 28

T-number = 13 and T-total = 13 + 20 + 27 + 26 + 28 = 114

Let us see if the formula works.

## Y = 114

If it is then translated by the vector  0  , and then followed by a transformation of 90°

-3

anti-clockwise, the new T-shape will be:

 24 31 32 33 38

T-number = 33 and T-total = 33 + 32 + 31 + 24 + 38 = 158

Let us see if the formula works.

## Y = 5(T + a – G b – G + 1) – 7

Y = 5(18 + (0) – 7(–3) – 7 + 1) – 7

Y = 158

These formulae are tested for 3 different samples and are proved to be worked combinations of transformations of those 3 angles.

Conclusion:

Final mark: 8  8  8 (full mark)

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE T-Total section.

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