• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Symphony number 45 in F# minor (the

Extracts from this document...


Symphony number 45 in F# minor (the "Farewell symphony") Between 1761 and 1790 Haydn was employed by the enormously wealthy Esterhazy family who had two palaces on the borders of Austria and Hungary. The court orchestra was similar to that of many baroque orchestras - two oboes, a bassoon, a string ensemble and a harpsichord. But it also included a pair of horns - instruments that became a regular part of the orchestra thereafter. It was this orchestra that accompanied operas in the palace theatre and played symphonies twice a week. Haydn's symphony number 45 in F# minor was first performed in the summer prince Nikolaus Esterhazy and his household lived in their Hungarian palace where wives of his musicians where not allowed to stay. ...read more.


At the other extreme is a serene radiance and classical poise. The last movement of the Farewell symphony contains both styles. The presto is stormy, but the violent mood is restrained by its form. The major -mode serenity at the start of the Adagio is later tinged with minor-mode sadness and one of the strangest endings in symphonic music. Haydn's use of wind instruments is quite different from Bach's and shows how orchestration changed during the 18th century. Where Bach uses wind instruments to provide melodic lines within his contrapuntal textures, in this symphony Haydn uses them to add colour or weight to the string parts. In fact a performance of the presto on strings alone would make perfect sense. The oboes are used in two ways: they reinforce the violins in loud passages and provide sustained notes that bind the texture (eg bars 20-24) ...read more.


It makes the distinction between Bach's contrapuntal orchestral techniques and Haydn's more homophonic approach to the wind section abundantly clear. The division of the violin section into four groups in the Adagio is very unusual. It is allowed Haydn to end the symphony with just two muted violins. Unusually Haydn to gives melodic material to all wind instruments just before they leave. These passages point to the way wind instruments gained their independence from the strings un classical music. Even the double bass is given an extensive solo in bars 55-67. With the departure of the double bass Haydn is left with a four-part string band, then a trio. Meanwhile the first and second violins put their mutes on ready for the consordino duet that fades into silence. Soloist textures of this sort were becoming common in romantic orchestral music, but they are extremely rare in 18th-century symphonies. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Music section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Music essays

  1. Music Appraisal - Classical Waltzes

    These accents also developed the feeling of the music which led to the middle section. I heavily used legato when needed to adhere to Chopin's ideology of a flowing waltz. However, I tried not to slur the bass chords with too much legato or pedalling but instead, held the chords securely while maintaining a steady speed.

  2. Indian Instruments

    Raga The melodic basis of Indian classical music. Each raga has infinite possibilities of variation, and a skilful performer can extend improvised and composed material from a few minutes to well over an hour. The origin of the word, from a Sanskrit root meaning colour, suggests that a raga is more than a musical idea.

  1. The history of Music

    prominent part in the urbanisation of the blues, was here often relegated to an accompanying role - listen to Charles Brown records for example and you'll hear virtually all the solos played by Brown at the piano. This is not always the case of course, some of the greatest "jump

  2. Beethoven & the Symphonic Genre

    This piece opens with a slow introduction, like many of Haydn's symphonies, but he purposely delays the tonic until the Allegro begins. The first chord is a dominant seventh, and while it sounds fairly ordinary today, it was a surprising, unprepared dissonance to Classical audiences.

  1. Niccolò Paganini - Violin Virtuoso and Technique Innovator

    This posture was relaxed, and allowed Paganini to achieve a strong center of gravity. Paganini's left hand position appears to have been due to the extraordinary flexibility of his thumb, fingers, wrist, and other joints. He could easily reach a span of three octaves!

  2. Ludwig van Beethoven, his life story and music from the Bonn peroid.

    But the new elector, Maximilian Franz, brother of the Habsburg Emperor Joseph II, instituted economies on his accession in 1784 that transferred some of Neefe's salary to his pupil. Beethoven's salary as organist was thus fixed at 150 florins.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work