• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Fatigue - affects on the body

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Task 4 Fatigue The body uses food as energy as we have discussed in task 3 but when the body is low on what it needs it becomes fatigued. Often the thing the body is low on is oxygen, this is a major factor in fatigue. (Wilmore and Costill, 1988) described Fatigue as a general sensation of tiredness as well as a decrease in muscular performance. Muscular fatigue occurs in athletes after a tough training session. This description is very general and does not explain what causes fatigue. (Answers.com, 2005) believe fatigue is the decreased capacity or complete inability of an organism to function normally because off excessive stimulation. This description is better then the first as it states that excessive stimulation, even lack of sleep, will cause the body to fatigue. It is the body's way of saying it needs rest. (Gandevia et al., 1995; Hagberg, 1981; Hawley et al., 1997) describes fatigue as the inability to continue functioning at the level of one's normal abilities. This is also very general but it is clear in what it describes. performance may decrease for a number of reasons:(can performance improve) * accumulation of waste products lactic acid * depletion of energy stores glycogen * changes in physio chemical state of the muscle electrolytes * disturbances in the processes of muscular co-ordinbation-CNS Neuromuscular fatigue - neural fatigue and muscular fatigue CNS has 2 basic processes: * Excitation of the necessary muscle fibers * Inhibition of nueral firing Fatigue can be caused due to the inability of the CNS to activate the required muscle fibres. This occurs when the impulse doesn't get to muscles so they don't contract. ...read more.

Middle

Oxygen debt and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) (Wilmore and Costill, 1988) states oxygen consumption is a measure of a person's ability to take in and use oxygen. During low intensity exercise with a constant power output, oxygen uptake increases for the first few minutes, until the oxygen demand by the body is met by the oxygen consumption. At the start of exercise the body uses energy through anaerobic systems until the aerobic system kicks in. It kicks in when the body gets used to the new demand put upon it. The body supplies energy without oxygen at first so the body owes the oxygen this is called oxygen deficit. This oxygen that is owed is paid back after exercise when the body recovers. It does this by keeping oxygen consumption higher then it normally would at rest, this is called oxygen debt. Fig.1 this shows a graph of oxygen consumption during exercise (digital humans) The aerobic system is the most efficient system in terms of ATP production at a steady rate. The aerobic system cannot be used immediately in exercise this is because: * It takes time for the cardiovascular system to get oxygen to the muscles * The aerobic system is kick started by the build up of excess ADP in mitochondria * The rate of demand for ATP is simply too great to be met by the aerobic means Oxygen deficit can be calculated as the difference between the amount of oxygen that is required and the amount that is actually consumed. EPOC is the oxygen uptake above resting values used to restore the body to pre exercise state. ...read more.

Conclusion

Training can be done every other day the training program should last 8-12 weeks. Example sessions that will help to train this energy system are: * 150 m intervals with 20 seconds recovery until pace significantly slows. * 300 m repeated eight times with three minutes recovery. By performing this training, the body will be able to withstand higher levels of lactic acid and produce more enzymes that will help in the production of ATP via the lactic acid system. Exercises of over 60 seconds, can overload the lactic acid system. This system adapts by: * Glycogen stores within muscles increased, due to increase in size or number of mitochodria. * Cells learn to use and store more rapidly * Increase in glycotic enzymes * Increase in lactate dehydrogenase aids convertion of pyruvic acid * Buffering capacity of muscle against lactic acid increased * Can work longer before hydrogen inhibits enzyme action Aerobic system This system requires oxygen and most adaptations from exercise occur in this system. There is no lactic acid and can even burn lactic acid as fuel. The main sources of fuels are complex carbohydrates and fats as fuels. When training this system you should Increase duration of the exercise then increase the intensity. This allows both the capacity to use and deliver oxygen to improve. Total work volume should be between 15-60 minutes for both continuous and interval training. Continuous training works best between 30-60 minutes. Interval training a rep may be between 10secs up to 7 minutes Work rest ratio is 2:1 so for 10 minutes work get 5 minutes rest. Training should occur at least every other 6 days and at most every second day. The training program should last between 3-6 weeks. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Anatomy and Physiology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related GCSE Anatomy and Physiology essays

  1. Temperature regulation practical - Homeostasis.

    with exercise. Hypothesis: That with rigorous exercise for 3 minutes (skipping), the core temperature of the human body will increase in temperature, while the external temperature will fall. However fluctuations in the temperature will not be significant, only perhaps 1-1.5�C.

  2. Conduct the Queens Step test (provided) for all 4 students. Record the resting heart ...

    Cross trainer: this works both leg and arm muscles while applying stress to the aerobic system and the other systems through the varying resistance that can be applied. This means the intensity is normally medium, but can be low if a lot of resistance is used.

  1. Circulatory system and blood

    humorous, tibia, femur, ulna, metacarpals, etc.) are of this type. Short bones are short, cube-shaped, and found in the wrists and ankles. Flat bones have broad surfaces for protection of organs and attachment of muscles (ex. ribs, cranial bones, bones of shoulder girdle). Irregular bones are all others that do not fall into the previous categories.

  2. Personal Exercise Programme

    feel the improvements in my fitness, I have nearly reached my recovery rate of 3 minutes. Evaluation week 7 - resting pulse rate = 80 seconds - pulse rate after one minute = 114 - pulse rate after two minute = 95 - pulse rate after three minute = 80

  1. How muscles and joints are used by different sportspeople.

    To mature in a healthy way, bones need protein, calcium, and other minerals. Bones begin to form and grow in the embryo. At birth we have about 300 bones. Some of These joins join together and as a adult we Have about 206 bones.

  2. In this report I will explain and analyse the link between an endurance athletes ...

    These are known as the essential amino acids and you should ensure that you are consuming the recommended daily allowance of all eight of these amino acids. As a sports participant, the essential amino acids valine, leucine, and isoleucine are of particular importance as these are used when your body

  1. btec P.E unit 1

    Bone growth Parts of the skeleton form during the first few weeks of life; by week eight after conception, the skeletal pattern has formed in cartilage and connective tissue membranes and thus ossification begins. Ossification is the process in which bones are formed, connective tissues, such as cartilage is transformed to bone or bone-like tissue.

  2. Monitoring Food and Its Effects on the Body

    is used to determine the amount of calories needed in addition to the basal metabolism and energy required for those daily activities (NHMRC 2005). Though, a medical condition called obesity occurs when there is a high intensive amount of calorie intake above the recommended AMR.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work